CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Change management has been defined as the process of undertaking a structured and planned approach to aid in aligning an organization with change. Change can rise from external, economic, social and political forces as well as technological advances. On the other hand, change can originate from within a group as a management reaction to a number of matters such as customer needs, performance issues, cost or even human resources. Change can have an impact in a small area of an organization like a department or the whole organization (Hickman & Silva, 2018). There are vital practices and principles which help an organization to admit change. Precisely speaking, change makes an inherent feature of an organization, and whether one likes it or not, every organization be it in the private or public sector must undergo change to remain relevant. Currently, market dynamics have posed challenges for civic limited organizations due to the emergence of the universal economy, increased societal demands, development in technology as well as the desire to offer more social services with the use of few resources (Hickman & Silva, 2018). We have many models which have been advanced to give an explanation for this. To mention, these theories comprise of open systems, resource-based as well as knowledge-based approaches.
As argued by Carey, Kay & Nevile (2017), the resource-based theorists argue that organizations have enough resources that help them to attain competitive advantage whereas the other part results in superior-long term performance. The competitive advantage can be sustained for a long time that is enough for the organization to safeguard its resources from imitation, substitution or even transfer. On the other hand, knowledge-based theory gives consideration for knowledge as a strategically vital resource for an organization (Cummings, Bridgman & Brown, 2016). The proponents of the knowledge-based theory allege that since knowledge is socially involved and hard to imitate, heterogeneous capabilities as well as expertise among organizations are the primary determiners of superior performance and sustained competitive advantage. The same knowledge is embedded in the firm’s numerous entities (Di Fabio, 2017).
Firms which are open systems try to interact with their setting. Based on the openness of the system, in case an organization is in relentless interaction with its environment, it is evident it will be receptive to external influences. By default and nature, organizations are open systems, and the proponents of this school of thought view the organizations as being of composed of several interconnected sub-systems. It depends that any change in a single sub-system will pose an effect on the other parts of the organization and consequently on the whole performance of the organization (Hickman & Silva, 2018). This interpretation is relevant to Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC. Several organizations relentlessly undergo change, and Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC is no exception.
The company’s (Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC) environment has turned out to be very turbulent, and the experienced changes are taking place in faster rates as opposed to any time before. Based on this, a number of the techniques that are used by the organization in managing their affairs tend to get outdated overnight. Customers, as well as customer demands, are as well increasing (Hickman & Silva, 2018). To overcome and advance, companies ought to adapt to changes in their setting, if otherwise, they lose their vigor to compete. Whenever the environment changes and the first niche that was filled by the company either turn to be of less importance or become superseded, the company needs to change or die. Now that change is inevitable, and the main thing that is constant is that organizations ought to change or suffer the blow of becoming irrelevant since their long-term survival is attached on adopting changes as they happen in the setting. Based on this, Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC has embraced several practices and strategies to aid in dealing with and also handling the changes.
According to Nadler, (2001), change management refers to the techniques, processes, and tools of managing the people side of business change to realize the desired business outcome and above all to establish that business change successfully within the social substructure of the workstation. Change in behaviors and attitudes can develop a culture that is built on communication, constructive handling of disagreements, interpersonal trust, collaborative problem solving as well as teamwork (Cummings, Bridgman & Brown, 2016). Those organizations that have managed change successfully have had the ability of linking strategic change with operational change and also each aspect of the organization in accordance with a dynamic eternal setting. For an organization, change management implies implementing and also defining technologies and procedures to handle the entire changes in business as the whole setting and to earn income from the fluctuating opportunities. For managers to effectively manage change processes, the executives ought to know the situations, the changes to expect, the type of changes to expect and also the possible problems that the organization can experience not forgetting the causes of resistance and their likely solutions. Based on this, successful change management strategies as well as practices, therefore, ought to comprise of the people’s component of change as alleged by Di Fabio (2017).
Usually, changes are perceived to be successful when every worker that ought to do things in his or her way has awareness, knowledge, reinforcement as well as ability (Buckley, Wheeler & Halbesleben, 2018). Change management needs tools, principles, processes, and skills to be effective. The obligation of managing change is bestowed on the executives and management of an organization and they ought to manage the change in a manner that the workers can cope up with. On the other hand, the manager is mandated to enable and enhance change by comprehending their situation from an impartial standpoint and enable individuals to understand the aims, reasons as well as ways of reacting positively in accordance to the personal situations and capabilities of the employees (Buckley, Wheeler & Halbesleben, 2018). An effective change management practice policy is a fundamental success factor in the enactment of changes in the firms. Therefore, effective change management practices ought to be approached from both the organizational and the individual perspectives (Hartnell et al., 2016).
1.1.2. Energy Sector in Oman
In Oman, the oil and gas sector stands responsible for the country’s government revenue and also economic growth. Based on this, changes in the industry reflect on the sultanate’s general development. The energy sector Oman is dominated by petroleum as well as electricity. Wood and fuel provide the necessary energy needs for the urban poor, the rural communities as well as the informal sector. Based on the analysis of the national energy in Oman, it is evident that there is heavy dependence on wood fuel as well as other biomass which account for 67% of the country’s total consumption (electricity accounts for 9%, petroleum 22%, others sources of fuel account for 1%) (Oman, 2019). The country of Oman has a net installed capacity of around 7,800 MW with the majority of this being situated in the MIS. Since the year 2015, the state of Oman’s net installed electricity has declined by 0.6%. This has been caused by the low available capacity of the country’s generation plants. The country of Oman’s sole sources of energy comprises of crude oil that accounts 65% and also gas that accounts for 35%. The state of Oman does not have any other source of energy such as nuclear power, renewable energy and coal (Oman, 2019).
1.1.3 Oman Electricity Transmission Company OETC SAOC
Oman Electricity Transmission Company (OETC) SAOC was set up in the year 2005 with its basements being in Muscat in the Sultanate of Oman (Com, 2019). The company plays an imperative role in the electricity sector of the country of Oman. This is since OETC owns and also runs the major spread network and also transmission network of electricity in Dhofar from where electrical energy is transferred from the stations that generate it to the dissemination load centers in every region of the Sultanate of Oman (Com, 2019). With this mentioned, it is evident that Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC takes part in electricity transmission as well as dispatch undertakings within the Sultanate of Oman. On the other hand, the company (Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC) develops, operates and owns an electricity transmission network. Since the year 2005, OETC SAOC has undergone many transformations to its current position where it solely takes part in the transmission as well as the distribution of electricity (Com, 2019). The services that are provided by Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC target both corporate and individual customers. Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC saw an increase in its customer base to an excess of 261, 480 in the year 2018 (Com, 2019). In the same year, the company witnessed a recognizable growth in electricity sales as well as related revenues. This was evident by the fact that the organization’s revenue increased by 10% to reach OMR 210 million in that year (2017) (Com, 2019). Based on this changing customer needs and development, it has been necessary for Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC to adopt new ways of addressing their customers. Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC has begun by initiating as well as implementing the rebranding and culture change initiative (Oman, 2019).
On the other hand, several restructuring steps, as well as strategies, have been undertaken by Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC in meeting its changing business setting (Oman, 2019). The strategic changes embraced by Oman Electricity Transmission Company comprise of increasing competition in generation by facilitating novel projects to IPPs, thereby overpowering capacity shortfalls by other private sector investments. There is also outsourcing of construction for new consumer connections. On the other hand, there is the enactment of system reinforcement substation projects that target at attaining substantial technical loss reduction reimbursements (Jimmieson, Peach, and White, 2014). Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC is facing many challenges and the manner on which it should manage their effects including rapid technological changes and also inadequate resources. Whereas organizational is a constant experience awareness and knowledge concerning many critical issues pertained in the management of such a change is usually lacking in the individuals that have the mandate of overseeing the progress. Precisely speaking, if organizations are to experience a wide level of success in their respective development efforts, executives as well as program officers ought to own a better understanding and framework of the major issues that go hand in hand with the change management (Jimmieson, Peach, and White, 2014).
Change management refers to the techniques, processes, and tools of managing the people side of business change to realize the anticipated business outcome and above all to establish that business change successfully within the social substructure of the workstation. Change management entails working with a company’s stakeholder groups to enable them to understand what change means for the stakeholder groups, helping them make and also sustain the working and transition to overcome any challenge that might be involved. Change has become very complex, discontinuous and also novel from the previous experiences. Hastened by the frequency of changes as well as the rate of dissemination of change, the current biosphere has changed to revolutionary from evolutionary. Establishments are relentlessly being enforced to undergo relentless adaptation due to the effects of globalization, transformations in IT, augmented competition as well as deregulations. Currently, the world is in a relentless changing mood and so groups in it ought to change for them to endure (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart & Wright, 2017). Over the last three periods, the public sector has faced increased force to increase performance and express better accountability and transparency. The pressure has led to organizations shifting in their ways of operating.
The operating environment for Oman Electricity Transmission Company has currently become turbulent, and the changes which are experienced are taking place at higher rates as it never happened in the country of Oman. Nevertheless, many of the strategies that are used by the organization (Oman Electricity Transmission Company) in managing their undertakings tend to become obsolete quickly. External changes which have been facing the organization give an avenue for thinking. According to Di Fabio (2017), the current business environments, planning as well as implementing significant changes ought to be given the priority for long-term survival and also the prosperity of a company. This is since tmanagement of change is a complex process that most companies and organizations get wrong. Whenever the business environment changes at a slow and silent rate, organizations get to experience new trends such as privatization, high-tech breakthroughs, internalization as well as globalization. In rder to weather these trends, organizations ought to act agilely to respond quickly to the change and maintain their competitive edges. We have many studies which have been undertaken regarding change management. Di Fabio (2017) carried out research on change management at PZ Cussons EA Limited and concluded that PZ Cussions has recently experienced many changes and have embraced change management practices. Of importance to note were the extreme changes in the organization’s top management rightsizing and downsizing.
The principal reasons that facilitated the occurrence of the changes in the organization were the extreme changes in the business setting. The literature that has been cited here above implies that there has never been a study that focuses on change management practices that have been adopted in reaction to the external environmental changes in the Oman Electricity Transmission Company. Based on this, the study ventured to fulfill the gap that exists in knowledge by establishing what the change management in Oman Electricity Transmission Company has embraced to address change management and the level of their effectiveness. This thus brings forth the question: what are the change management practices that have been adopted by Oman Electricity Transmission Company?
The research aims at determining change management practices in Oman Electricity Transmission Company.
The study shall be of value to the management of Oman Electricity Transmission Company as it will help them to know the right strategies of undertaking the strategic change in the company to attain a competitive advantage over its closest competitors. Other additional beneficiaries of this research might comprise of organizations which are planning to undertake change management to overcome competitive challenges. On the other hand, the study shall help managers in different organizations to understand the practices of change management, and by this, the managers will be able to use them whenever they undertake change management in their respective companies. Additionally, the study shall be necessary in facilitating increased service delivery that arises from effective change management. On the other hand, the government, as well as regulators in the electricity production industry, shall as well find helpful information on how good change can be adopted and as a result embrace policies which will encourage and guide other firms without and within the industry that is implementing the changes. Moreover, the study shall help in creating a monograph which can be replicated in other public and private companies in the country of Oman.
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter summarizes facts from various researchers that have carried out their research in a similar field of study. This chapter covers specific areas such as models of change management, foundations of the study as well as change management practices.
2.2. Theoretical foundation of the study
According to Kirkman et al., (2016), the roots of change management arise from the science of psychology. Most of those techniques that help persons to deal with emotional or traumatic issues have been embraced to help people to address dramatic changes in the manner in which they get their livelihoods. Based on this, many practitioners and theorists alike propose the use of change management strategies in successfully dealing with the change process. As argued by Kirkman et al., (2016), there exist three schools of thought which establish a foundation on which change management model stands. Based on this, the individual perspective school is the first school of thought, and it comprises of learning the manner in which behaviors are acquired. In the individual perspective school of thought, there are two camps of supporters where one comprises of “behaviorist” that see behavior as coming from a person’s interaction with their setting. The behaviorists view behavior as a , and every individual is a passive recipient of the objective and external data. Moreover, learning takes place by the help of external stimuli such as punishment, reinforcement, and rewards. Beyond stimulus, there must be the reason that is usually one’s ability to interpret the stimulus. Therefore, to change behavior, it is important to change the causative conditions which cause it (Kirkman et al., 2016). On the other hand, we have another group that is comprised of “Gestalt-Field psychologist,” who hold that a person’s behavior is the outcome of reason and environment. In this camp, learning has been defined as a process of changing or gaining insights expectations, outlooks or patterns of thought. Behaviors are not only a product of external stimuli; instead it arises from how an individual makes use of reason in interpreting the stimuli. The proponent of this view venture to help members of an organization changes the comprehension of their situations and themselves and this usually changes their conduct (Punnett, 2015). On the other hand, the dynamic school suggests that group conduct is an intricate set of forces as well as interactions which not only touch group structures but as well modify personal behavior. This school of thought also focuses on enhancing organizational change by the aid of teamwork as opposed to individuals (Grant, 2016).
To enhance change, it is of no importance to emphasize changing an individual’s behavior. The emphasis on change ought to be done at the organization level and need to emphasize changing and influencing the group’s values, roles, and group norms. Based on this, the group dynamics school of thought is viewed as being influential in coming up with both practice and theory of change management. Usually, organizations are open units, and this school of thought sees them as ones that comprise of several interconnected sub-systems. It implies then that whichever small change in a single sub-system will affect the subsequent parts of the system and later on, on its general performance. Based on this, the open system tactic aims to structure the roles of a business in a manner that by the use of distinct lines of interdependence and coordination, the general business objectives are jointly pursued. According to Grant (2016), we have four main sub-systems in organizations. The sub-systems comprise of goals as well as value sub-system (policies, strategic plan, and regulations), managerial sub-system and technical sub-system (outputs and inputs).
2.3. Models of Change Management
Various methods, tools, and models have been advanced to handle the change process. These methods and tools are usually reliant on the desired change. Coaching individuals during the change process as well as facilitating learning of skills which are required to deal with the new setting successfully is also essential (Cummings, Bridgman & Brown, 2016). In the environment of hastened and relentless change, the capacity of a company to change is seen as being a crucial success factor and an essential corporate asset than the change kind of change model that is being implemented by the organization. Some examples of the models are addressed below.
2.3.1. Kotter’s 8 –Step Model
As cited in Cummings et al., (2016), Kotter’s 8 –Step Model is built on Lewin’s 3-step model to come up with a detailed model for enacting change. According to Kotters (1985), managers failed in implementing change because of these reasons which include; lack of vision for change and also failure of effective communication of the vision, lack of ability to establish urgency concerning change, inability to provide goals that are attainable and not attaching the changes to the organizational culture. According to Kotters (1985), there are eight steps that enhance the effective implementation of change and they include: creating a sense of urgency by establishing a compelling reason for the need of change, establishing a coalition that has ability to lead change, establishing a new vision to foresee the change as well as strategies for communicating the vision in the organization, attaining the vision, empowering other people to work on the vision by getting rid of barriers to change and above all encouraging creative problem solving and risk taking (Cummings, Bridgman & Brown, 2016). On the other hand, it comprises of planning, creating and rewarding minor wins which move the company to achieve the new vision, reassess change, consolidating improvements as well as making necessary changes in the new programs not forgetting strengthening the change by demonstrating the relations that are evident in organizational success and new behaviors.
2.3.2. Lewin’s 3 step model of change
According to Burnes (2004), Lewin’s 3- step model describes portrays the change process of an organization as being a series of transitions among various states of the refreezing, transition state and unfreezing. The initial state is unfreezing state of a system that reflects a state of relative stability. During a time when a disruptive force impacts on the status quo, individuals are inspired to discontinue various aspects of the behavior. On the other hand, unfreezing is viewed as being an important and difficult state of the change process. This transition state marks a phase of the change process where individuals are not acting as they used to but are put in a new pattern of behavior. The desire to reduce anxiety enhances a powerful craving for seeking out, utilizing and processing information to establish a new state of relevance or stability or even revert to the initial state. One of the consistent findings concerning the change process is the decrease in the performance of an organization as the change is enacted into the ongoing organizational (Shah, Irani & Sharif, 2017). According to Grant (2016), refreezing occurs the time employees achieve a new state of conditions and attitudes have started to express the state in new and daily behaviors. To have the new behaviors last, they ought to fit in the personality the individual and the culture of the company that is set for changes. Else the behavior will be only a provisional alteration to the pressure of the change and will wear down the moment the change agent has stopped to disconfirm the initial behavior. The time when transition and unfreezing states are planned managed effectively; the outcome of the process of refreezing is the anticipated state. In case the initial states are not handled effectively, the organization and the people will refreeze but not to the anticipated state.
2.3.3. Congruence Model of Organization
Nadler (2011) came up with the Congruence Model of Organization Behaviour. The main point of this model is that all elements need to be in alignment in order to work. The major inputs of this model comprise of the available resources, the environment, the history and strategy of the organization. When it comes to considering the use of the Congruence Model, a farfetched evaluation of the drivers of change should be part and parcel of the initial assessment of the drivers of change in the setting. There ought to be the provision of training in order to improve the skills of the workers. Also, the employee skills need to be supported in terms of monitoring the feedback of the customers, coaching as well as recruiting new workers into the company with expertise in the area of interest. Grant (2016) established that successful change management programs were constructed on the manager carrying out important work earlier to make sure that the staff will contemplate new means of working which is a very important ingredient of accomplishment in each change program. Grant (2016) argues that transformational processes are made of four main components, and they include: the work to be accomplished by the organization, the person to do the task, the formal processes, and structures enacted to motivate performance as well as the informal arrangements like influence and communication that characterize the manner in which the organization carries out its operations. Based on this, a reward system ought to be established and monitored to make sure the best behaviors are enhanced. Moreover, targets ought to be decided on before the change so that the success of the process (transformation) can be analyzed as the project progresses. Outputs comprise of the manner in which organizational goals are attained, how resources are made use of, the manner in which individual embrace the change process and the manner in which the change initiative has been successful. Performance goals are very important elements of a successful change initiative and as per Grant (2016), the goals ought to be a prime part of the formation of a change process.
2.4. Change Management Practices
The major aim of an organizational change is to attach to the environment and also to advance in performance. Minus changing, firms might not survive because the environment is dynamic and at times turbulent. According to Pearce and Robinson (1997), argue that the powerful force in the environment is pressurizing the private and public organizations to permanently change the existing policies, structures practices, technology, and strategies. The change management practices comprise of worker/employee participation, organizational structure, communication as well as stakeholder involvement.
2.4.1. Communication Issue
According to Van Dam et al., (2008), when enacting any organizational change, it is very vital there is embraced a communication policy since doubt might be worrying unlike the real phases of the organizational change. The sense of uncertainty concerning an imminent change and the position that it might leave workers in is typical of the ones that are undergoing change (Grant, 2016). Based on this, giving workers information concerning a change can play a big role in reducing anxiety as well as uncertainty concerning anticipated results. According to Grant (2016), whenever change announcements are communicated in time and addressed the concerns of the employees, they play a role in making the employees to feel ready and welcome change. Based on this, good communication allays the workers’ fears and transmits a message that enhances worker self-efficacy for having the ability to achieve after the implementation of the change and teach the workers concerning the change. Moreover, communication does not only enhance comprehending but also facilitates the buy-in of the workers to the planned desire for change. Communicating with the workers concerning their evaluation of change as well as helping them to come up with a point of individual power in the change movement enhances confidence in the intended change. Grant (2016) realized that there was no big difference between individuals that have received a lot of information and ones that had not received any information. Explaining that even the well-organized communication strategy might still end up in workers that feel they have not received all the required information in an appropriate and timely manner. Therefore, based on this, making sure that the appropriate communication strategy of change aligned to the kind of change is very vital. It is important to bear in that best strategic communication strategy in the organization can be impacted by the social nature of the workers in any company. Organizations are entrenched in social links whereby the other workers can have an outcome on the manner in which the workers comprehend and also theorize change plans. We have social systems where information concerning change (impact on work processes, the rationale for change) is discussed and exchanged. Workers gauge responses from one another to define the meaning underlying any change texts that are provided. According to Grant (2016), employees that are part of networks like these got more information as opposed to the others. Nevertheless, it is important to consider the effect that can be posed by networks and the ways of distributing information concerning change. Even if every change and organization is different, it is alleged that the adoption of a synchronized approach to the administration and design of communication can be helpful in avoiding expensive mistakes and also increase the probability of success.
2.4.2. Employee Participation
Soumyaja et al., (2015) argue that whereas change communication is viewed as a good option of providing chances of participation, overcoming resistance in a change, it has also been recommended as a good way of helping reduce negative attitudes towards transformations to the work environment. On the other hand, the need for taking part in any organizational change is founded on the principle that it achieves three main human-work desires namely decreased isolation, meaningfulness, and autonomy. Equally the same, worker participation in any organizational change is viewed to make realities of any organizational change clear while benefiting the change executives by acquiring more information concerning the skills and perspectives of the workers (Lines, 2004). Not only do the workers feel like their opinion matters and feel involved, but change executives receive information of value that can enable them to make wise decisions whenever it comes to enacting a change. Based on resistance and readiness to change can be impacted by the worker participation, it is reasonable to declare that those workers that are involved in the implementation or planning of a change are privy to data that is not easily accessed by the ones that take part in the process. Based on this, they are prone to understanding the objectives and reasons for the anticipated change (Holt et al., 2007).
According to Armenakiset al., (2003), participation is a way in which workers can realize texts concerning organizational change and discrepancy related efficacy where much confidence is given to information that is accomplished on their own. Based on this, active participation is available in three ways namely; the workers in a task where they can quickly gain information concerning efficacy and discrepancy; providing workers with a mediated learning experience in order for them to develop personal confidence for accomplishing new errands and lastly through enactive mastery whereby workers take undertake small steps towards a given change thereby building trust.
2.4.3. Committed Leadership
The responsibility of leadership in change management extortion can never be underrated and is relentlessly quoted as the amount one contributes to the change success. The faster in the project life the organization’s executives take part in the change, the useful they can be in establishing acceptance of the move by individuals that are affected by the change. According to Dorfman and House (2004), change begins from the top and the organization’s leaders ought to be the champions, role models and visionaries for the likely change. The difficulty and ease of achieving an anticipated change depends partly on the atmosphere (the climate and organizational culture) that is created by the leaders of an organization. According to Elkins and Keller (2003), the relationship that underlies the behaviors of a leader and the performance of a firm are theorized to as being moderate by situational variables that comprise of the features of the environment, subordinates as well as errand. Sanda (2011) alleges that needed workplace changes will necessitate that al people who are associated with a change organization are well informed, and their comprehension on the nature of the intended changes and the affiliation between change and leadership are sought.
Nevertheless, whichever progress in transformations of this type will face numerous constraints and may later on regress. This implies that the characteristics of workers can affect the efficiency of directive leadership conducts. Strategic leadership ought to comprise of individual visionaries as well as charismatic, transformational managers who are interested in establishing an organizational culture which sees continual change as a necessary business activity and also a competitive strategy.
2.4.4. Organizational structure
Usually, Structure Strategies are created and implemented by executives who operate in the current conditions. The organization of the structure of a company is designed in order to breakdown the manner in which work is done in business units as well as their functional departments. Individuals work in the mentioned units and divisions, and their behaviors occur within a well-defined framework of plans, objectives as well as policies. Effective strategic change largely relies on the manner in which the company is organized. The structure of an organization plays a big role in identifying its activities as well as the style in which the organization coordinates the events in order to attain the strategic objective of the organization. On the other hand, the structure of the organization gives managers the vehicle to fully exploiting the skills as well as the capabilities of the workers who have minimal costs. Additionally, organizational structure enhances the capacity of the firm to attain superior quality, efficiency, customer responsiveness and innovation (Pearce and Robinson, 2007).
An efficient organization is the one that has an excellent strategic alignment between the structures, mission as well as subsequent HR management procedures and policies that support individuals on achieving organizational goals (Jimmiesonet al, 2004). Nevertheless, the cultural, political, and technical elements of the firms ought to be aligned. Emphasis on culture needs to be part of a successful change management process as well as the gat that underlies the desired and current culture needs that should be bridged. Workers ought to identify the new values that are needed. The workers also need to highlight the manner in which the shift can take course. In situations where the organization emphasizes one or two of the elements, change becomes dysfunctional. In order to thrive, the three stands ought to be addressed. Based on this, strategic management is the errand of keeping these three strands from being unraveled in the face of complications in a single area. These comprise of the strategy and mission, human resource procedure as well as the structure of the organization (Doppler and Lautenburg, 2000).
2.4.5. Stakeholder Involvement
Administrative leaders ought to develop support from major external stakeholders as well as political overseers. Organizational change relies on the level of support from major external stakeholders and political overseers. The effect of the actors on the results of change extortions stem partly from their capability to control the flow of essential resources and statutory changes to public companies. Political overseers can affect the results of the proposed change by conveying and creating a vision which gives an explanation for the need for change and selecting the political appointees that sympathize to the change and possess the skills and knowledge which are a necessity in managing the transition.
Getting support from the political and governmental actors comprise of many dares, given the limitations which are enforced by the political setting where private and public organizations carry out their operations. Public and private agencies usually have several political masters pursuing various objectives. Based on this appointed executives that rise to power politically usually have weak relations with their servants. Regardless of the challenges, managers enacting change in their companies need to display skills in obtaining support from other external sectors. Provision from other external stakeholders figures conspicuously in effective change extortions. The interest group’s setting act as a vital basis of agency adoption of transformations with robust group antagonism to an agency. According to Nason & Wiklund (2018), argue that moving forward to the implementation minus garnering the support of interest agencies can fasten the implementation process even if at the expense of criticism and dissatisfaction. A company needs to involve its stakeholders to implement transformations effectively. To succeed in doing that, stakeholders ought to comprehend the reasons as to why the change is taking place as well as its benefits. On the other hand, organizations need to give the stakeholders a chance of expressing opinions as well as contributing their ideas concerning the manner in which it might be implemented. Consequently, it is significant that each individual in an organization as well as ones that are interacting with firm both external and internal stakeholders are well informed and also offered information and messages which make them feel engaged thereby giving way for adoption and engagement
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Commonly research is known as the search for knowledge. It entails defining as well as redefining complication, formulating suggested solutions or hypothesis, collecting, evaluating and reaching conclusions not forgetting testing the conclusions to define if they fit the hypothesis. Therefore, this chapter ventures to introduce the study’s design, data collection as well as data analysis procedure.
3.2 Research Design
The study embraced the case study research design. Case studies are an in-depth investigation of individuals, phenomenon or institutions. Case studies allow researchers to gather in-depth data as opposed to cross-sectional studies with the motive of comprehending phenomenon or situations. On the other hand, case studies play a role in revealing the diversity of factors that have interacted to give the unique character of the subject of study. The reason behind this choice greatly depended on the knowledge that they (case studies) are appropriate for scrutinizing the process through which events unfold and also exploring causal affiliations. Elsewhere, with case studies, there is no generalization. Therefore, the conclusions or outcomes available do not apply to the entire population.
3.3 Data Collection
This study embraced the use of primary data that was gathered by the use of an interview guide. An interview guide refers to the set of questions which are asked by the interviewer during the interviewing session. Precisely speaking, respondents that took part in the interview were middle-level executives who are in charge of Human Resources, communication, commercial services, administration, telecommunication, information technology, commercial services as well as finance. The executives were given considerations to be major informants for this research. Major informants are as well a source of information which can be beneficial in comprehending the context of a company or even clarifying specific complications or issues. Among the benefits face to face interview is that the design is easier to transliterate a recorded interview whenever the dialogue contains just one interviewee. Based on this, structured open end queries shall be embraced in defining the change management practices and are usually built from literature review. Of great importance was the choice of respondents because senior managers of the organization are the head and can enhance organizational objectives of the firm. Moreover, they might give access to more important secondary data such as documents as well as other valuable information. The administered interview was semi-structured giving room for some questions to be added or omitted in case some useful and new information arose in the entire procedure that was face to face.
3.4. Data Analysis
The use of content analysis analyzed data that was obtained from the study’s interview guide. This method (content analysis) makes a systematic qualitative description for the composition of the materials of the study or objects (Nason & Wiklund, 2018). The content analysis comprises of detailed description and observation of items, objects and things which encompass of the object of particular research. The content analysis which is a class of approaches at the intersection of quantitative and qualitative traditions is embraced for the rigorous exploration of several vital but hard to study topics of interest to administration researchers (Nason & Wiklund, 2018). The approach was appropriate for this study since it gave room for detailed and deep sense accounts in varying conditions. Therefore, the qualitative method was appropriate for this study since the study was carried out within the setting where the enactment initiatives took place.
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, FINDINGS, AND INTERPRETATIONS
This chapter presents analysis as well as findings of the study. Findings of this chapter have ventured to justify the objectives of the study. Fifteen (15) respondents were involved in this study out of the target of twenty thus generating eighty (80) % response rate.
The use of content analysis analyzed the obtained data of the study. The study aimed to establish a model of describing the phenomenon in an abstract form. This method (content analysis) is a study method that is used in making valid and replicable inferences right from statistics to their context with the aim of providing new insights, knowledge, practical guide of action as well as a representation of facts (Kihara, 2010). Moreover, the objective is to achieve a broad and condensed description of the phenomenon as well as the result of the analysis as categories or concepts describing the phenomenon.
Gender of the respondents
The gender of respondents who took part in the study is as presented below;
Table number one: Gender of Respondents
Figure 1: Gender representation of respondents.
As is evident from the figure above, 53.3% of the respondents are male whereas 46.7% of the respondents are female customers. This variable indicates that the study’s sample contains characteristics of the population that is distributed in the same way that the population is distributed in relation to gender.
The age of respondents for the respondents of the study is as summarized below
Table number two: Age of the Respondents
|Less than 20||1||6.7|
|20 years – 35 years||2||13.3|
|35 years – 50 years||8||53.3|
|More than 50 years||4||26.7|
Figure 2: Gender age representation of respondents.
The table and figure above shows that 53.3% of the respondents lay within the age group of 35-50 years. The following largest group is more than 50 years, and it comprises of 26.7% of the total respondents. This implies that the respondents of this study spread across all age groups thereby making the best sample for that matter. This gives room for the researcher to gather views of managers of all ages who foresee change management in Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC.
Knowledge and expertise the respondents
Consequently, the other essential determinant of the effectiveness of change management is the knowledge of the workers of the organization. Sufficient knowledge helps the workers to carry out responsibilities efficiently and result in effective performance. Based on this, the management should embrace the use of adequately qualified and trained workers in implementing change. The responses of the respondents were summarized in the table and figure below.
Table number three: Knowledge and Expertise of the respondents
|Neither Satisfied nor dissatisfied||0||0.0|
Figure 3: Knowledge and expertise of the company’s staff.
Elsewhere, the level of education is another essential determinant of the effectiveness of change management. The responses of the respondents were summarized in the table and figure below.
Tabe no. 4: Education of the respondents
Figure 4: Education of the respondents.
Table 5: Effectiveness of the Company’s Change management
|The effectiveness of the Company’s Change management||Number||Percentage|
Figure 5: Effectiveness of the Company’s Change management
The effectiveness of the Company’s Change management asked in the question guide, and the responses of the respondents were summarized as represented in the figure and table above.
4.2. Change management at Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC
According to Kihara (2010), change management refers to an approach in planning, implementing, and designing, measuring as well as maintaining the process of change in employment or business activity. At Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC, strategy changes comprised of three things namely: (i) Contents that comprise of areas in the organization as well as technical aspects which ought to be changed. (ii) People which contains of mindset changes, cultures and behaviors which are needed in the change. (iii) Processes, that is the actions which should be taken to plan, create and also implement every change in a comprehensive and integrated manner.
Back in 2007 when the senior executives in Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC had a simple goal for themselves as well as the organization, shareholders needed little more, unlike predictable earning advancement. Since so many markets were undeveloped or closed, leaders were prone to delivering on the expectations by the help of annual exercises which provided just but modest alterations to the strategic plan. People remained in their jobs; prices stayed in check and life was good. However, market transparency, global capital flows, labor mobility as well as prompt communications have currently blown the comfortable state to smithereens. In close to all companies as well as industries right from giants on, down-heightened universal competition has concentrated executive’s collective mind on a thing that it initially avoided: change. Prosperous companies come up with a culture which is static. Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC has found itself amidst numerous changes both external and internal which have forced the company’s executive to revisit the drawing board to re-assess the way forward. Times have been turbulent, and Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC is compelled to re-strategize for it to stay afloat. What external and internal triggers can force a company to pursue change? The examples comprise of declining sales or profits or even lackluster.
On the other hand, the competitors of the company might have done a thing in recent times which is playing a role in eroding the company’s market share. Elsewhere, the state or the central government might have directed compliance with new rules and regulations. Elsewhere, on the positive side of the whole thing, the executives (senior executives) might have a vision of the manner in which the organization could do better than it currently does and desire to manage the organization towards its realization.
4.3. Change management practices at Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC
Change management has been defined as the tools, processes as well as techniques for handling the people part of the change. Consequently, change management refers to a method for managing and reducing resistance to change whenever an organization implements process, organizational or technology change. Based on this the study established that change management practices which were employed by Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC comprised of communication planning and communicating, worker participation, stakeholder involvement, leadership commitment as well as organizational structure. Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC embraced the mentioned practices in handling changes both unknown and anticipated.
Table 6: Change management practices at OETC
|Change management practices at OETC||Number||Percentage|
|Communication and communication planning||4||26.7|
Figure 6: Change management practices at OETC
On the other hand, the respondents were questioned on the change management practices which are embraced by OETC and they are responsed represented in the table and figure above.
4.3.1 Communication and communication planning
Usually, change leaders commit the mistake of being sure that other individuals have heard the texts need to be repeated 6-7 times before they get mounted in the employees’ minds. This is due to the fact every worker’s readiness to hear the texts rely on several factors. Efficient communicators prudently consider three elements namely; the audience which comprises of what has been said and when it was said. Study respondents in Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC had faith that there were huge improvements in the company’s communication process. More so with culture change, there was an increased use of mobile phone for business as opposed to gossiping, and the executives are just a single mail away. On the other hand, group/team talks have as well reduced the easiness that was evident in teams thus enhancing team spirit. The practices have played a decisive role in the better work setting as well as quality customer service.
The frequency of communication of change management
The respondents were asked of the frequency of communication, and their responses are summarized in the figure and table below.
Table 7: Frequency of Communication of Change management
|The frequency of Communication of Change Management||Number||Percentage|
Figure 7: Frequency of Communication of Change Management
Consequently, the quality of communication of the change management was also fundamental for the implementation of the change process and the responses of the respondents are summarized in the table and figure below.
Table 8: Quality of Communication
|Quality of Communication||Number||Percentage|
Figure 8: Quality of Communication
On the other hand, the respondents were interviewed on the mediums f communication embraced in the change management process. The respondents of the study believed that there was a great improvement in the communication process of the company over time. More so with culture change, there was an increased use of memos, meetings, emails, and phones for business as summarized in the figure and table below.
Table 9: Medium of Communication
|Medium of Communication||Number||Percentage|
Figure 9: Medium of Communication
4.3.2 Employee participation
Worker engagement’s close affiliation to organizational commitment, comprehending organizational commitment’s association with change management can offer valuable insight. Worker involvement is an essential and fundamental part of managing change. Based on this managing is not a single way street. The employee’s feedback is a fundamental element of the process of change management. Consequently, there is a need for Oman Electricity Transmission Company’s top management to review this process for any chance to avert resistance.
Table 10: Worker participation
Figure 10: Worker participation
As evident from the table and figure above, 46.7% of the study’s respondents were fully involved in the change management process of Oman Electricity Transmission Company. On the other hand, 40.0% of the respondents felt they were involved in the change process while 6.7% felt were neutral and not involved respectively. Therefore, based on the respondents in the study, one strategy for reducing resistance in the workers frequently mentioned in organizational change was to involve the workers in the entire change or empowering the workers to make changes by themselves (Ansoff et al., 2019). On the other hand, empirical studies have maintained the efficacy of this tactic for effective implementation of change more so in the private sector. Nevertheless, just worker involvement is not enough with executives playing an essential role in rewarding and encouraging innovation as well as expressing support for the change.
4.3.3 Leadership commitment
Executives of large change initiatives ought to perform well during a transformation and be the fanatics that establish a critical mass in the workforce for the benefit of a change. Therefore, this needs more than just passive or buy-in agreement that the direction assumed by a change is suitable. It requires ownership by leaders who are ready to accept accountability for facilitating change to take place in all areas that they control or influence. Usually, ownership is well created by involving people in identifying problems as well as crafting solutions. When the government of Oman privatized the company Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC by selling 49% of their shares, the organization undertook a culture change to customer-focused organization that aimed at meeting customer requirements from the initial parastatal mentality. Therefore, for this kind of changes to be effective, team leadership was necessary. The top management executives comprised of managers and supervisors in the culture and privatization change for them to behave as change owners. The moment supervisors and managers were on board, the team responsible for change management established a training and coaching strategy which made it easy for the top leadership of the organization to implement the change process for they contained foot soldiers representing them on the ground.
4.3.4 Organizational structure
An operative organization is the one that has a good strategic alignment between the structures, mission as well as the ensuing HR management procedures and policies that support people in realizing organizational goals. Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC put more emphasis on culture change in order to bridge the gap that existed between where they are and where they ought to be. Workers ought to recognize the new values that are a necessity and identify the manner in which the shift can take place. When a company lays emphasis on one or two of the mentioned elements, the change then becomes dysfunctional. In order to succeed therefore, the three strands ought to be addressed effectively. In light of this, strategic management is the errand of keeping the three strands from being unraveled in the face of complications in a single area. These comprise of the organization’s strategy, mission, the human resource procedures as well as the structure. Even if the company’s previous organizational structure was reviewed to curb the levels of report, it provides ambiguity in communication (Ansoff et al., 2019). As evident from the respondents, there is an urgent need for further reviewing of the structure of the organization to provide for vibrant reporting lines minus creating within units with clear definition of powers. This will be beneficial to Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC in achieving its vision and by that make better the working environment for the company’s staff as well as deliver better customer services to customers.
In order to realize the anticipated changes in Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC, organization structure of the company was re-organized by placing more employees on customer watching staff as well as reducing back office roles. On the other hand, the structure offered a clear communication flow down as well as bottom up to aid in bridging the existing gap that was prevalent between the top executives and other workers of the low cadre. As evident from the respondents, there now exists a clear communication where the CEO is accessible and approachable (just an email or phone call away) establishing a team spirit of being one as Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC.
4.3.5 Stakeholder involvement
Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC executive leaders have gained support from the major external stakeholders and political overseers by the virtue of being owned halfway by the government (Ansoff et al., 2019). Organizational change relies on the level of support from major external stakeholders and political overseers. The effects of the mentioned actors on the result of change extortions partly rise from their capability to enact statutory transformations and control the flow of essential resources to public/private organizations (Bonnafous & Rendtorff, 2016). The result of an intended change can be influenced by political overseers by establishing as well as conveying a vision which explains the desire for change and also picking political appointees that are sympathizers of change and have skills as well as knowledge essential for managing the change. According to the study’s respondents, Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC has had a long spell of government support what has resulted in better engagements with its external stakeholders.
4.4 Discussion of the findings
A number of studies have been carried in the field of change management in both Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC and other organizations in Oman. The goal of these studies is to enhance the performance of companies and management of change in order to reduce resistance. Based on this, organizations ought to use the findings of the studies to look inwardly on the resolutions to their glitches and check their failures.
In defining the challenges that are faced by Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC in the implementation of the change, it was realized that culture change consumed time to percolate to every level due to the large number of workers at Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC. On the other hand, the organizational structure was as well tall with several communications, reporting channels being inefficient and staff members were not well prepared on project management and change management. Whereas the study findings agree to early studies on communication channel and organization structure being inefficient, much has taken place to improve the condition. There are improved communication channels such as emails as well as face to group talks while the structure was reviewed over time. The interviewees suggest constant improvement of communication channels as well as further simplification of the structure of the organization to lower reporting of effectiveness.
In his study Grant (2016), comprehends that efficiency of strategy formulation and enactment in Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC and the manner in which the organization has reacted to the challenges of establishing and implementing its strategies had decentralized services by establishing Strategic Business Units which are accountable and responsible for their activities in their respective areas. In reaction to the challenge of service delivery efficiency, Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC has come up with service delivery standards. To ensure achievement of its goals, Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC developed new core values. Like any other organization that is undergoing change, Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC encountered resistance to change from a section of its members of staff. Nevertheless, with increased training, communication as well as recruitment of new staff, the resistance was controlled and later contained. Based on this, Grant (2016)’s findings on worker resistance to training and change are in line with the study. In this study, respondents acknowledge that there existed a minimal worker engrossment in the change process instead theirs was to enact which creates resistance. Therefore, there is the need to engage every staff member at all levels in the whole change management process and give training to fasten their skills and confidence to enact change.
The study as well highlights the essence of involving stakeholders such as suppliers, customers as well as policy makers in the entire change process. The mentioned parties will be helpful in integrating the anticipated change. For instance if the customer is comprised in giving feedback and suggestions they will truly own the product whereas suppliers will deliver quality products as well as services as they share in the company’s vision. Therefore, ensuing change process at Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC as well as any other organization ought to handle stakeholder involvement with the required seriousness (Bonnafous & Rendtorff, 2016). Possibly, the change practitioners such as consultants and managers are usually immersed in the daily operations of organizations to a level that makes it hard to look beyond the organizational ends. Nevertheless, as academics, we are well placed to step out of the hegemonic clutch of group interests and recognize our responsibility to the entire society. Based on this, our role as scholars is not just to educate the executives of tomorrow or even to inform of the practice of management. It is to give a critical and independent voice. To this level we ought to use a polemic stance (such as challenge orthodoxy and problematize conventional wisdom) whereas striking a balance between applied focus (carrying out studies for change management) and phenomenological orientation (carrying out research on change management).
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter brings forth a summary of the research projects that aimed at determining change management at Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC. The subsequent discussion emphasizes on the findings of the research against the environment of the objectives/goals the study strived to attain, the conclusion, the limitations as well as suggestions for further research by the same researcher.
5.2 Summary of the Findings
This study recognized that management practices by Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC in the change management as well as implementation comprised of communication and also communication planning, worker participation, leadership commitment, stakeholder involvement and of great importance organizational structure. Even if the change management processes were embraced not all were well understood and embarked on to satisfaction thus failing. The respondents of the study believed that there was great improvement in the communication process of the company over time. More so with culture change, there was an increased use of memos, meetings, emails and phones for business. On the other hand, group/team talks reduced the easiness that was initially prevalent among teams thereby enhancing team spirit. The mentioned factors have led to improved work setting as well as quality customer service. As evident from the study’s respondents, the common strategy for reducing resistance among employees that was frequently mentioned in the organizational change was involving the workers in the change or to allow them to make their own changes. Experimental studies have maintained the effectiveness of this strategy for effective enactment of change, more so with the private sector. Nevertheless, just worker involvement is not enough with executives playing a major role of rewarding, encouraging as well as expressing support for a given change.
Preceding organizational structure was reviewed to avert the levels of reporting but it still gives an ambiguity in communication. Based on the feedback of the respondents, there is a need for further reviewing the structure in order to allow for clear reporting lines minus creating disagreements in the units with clear power. This will help Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC to attain its vision provide better working environment for workers, provide better services for customers and above all achieve its vision. On the other hand, the study saw the need to involve stakeholders such as customers, policy makers and customers in the change process. This will play a role in integrating extortions in attaining anticipated change. For instance, in case the consumer is involved in giving suggestions as well as feedback, they will eventually own the product whereas suppliers will give quality services and products as they share in the vision of the managers. Therefore, ensuing change process at Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC as well as any other company ought to take the involvement of stakeholders with the needed seriousness.
Literature concerning change management as well as practice development in companies offers a useful perspective on factors that support, facilitate and inhabit changes in individual organizational, individual or team practice. Of importance to effective change as well as improvement is the balance between relational structural impetus for change comprising of direction and leadership from staff, management ownership of the anticipated changes as well as the responsibility of the multidisciplinary team in enhancing change. Of importance too is the sustainability of change. Several approaches as well as strategies to change management development used in a combination or alone were highlighted. This field is growing. Divergent types of evidence giving insights into ways of efficiently introducing change as well as developing practices in Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC environment is getting accumulated. Randomized studies as well as large scale interventions are comparatively rare and ought to represent the next stage in study strategies. Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC ought to initiate a relentless improvement process in order to maintain the gains that are made and make improvements on the failed areas. This will help Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC to remain competitive. On the other hand, this will vibrate the market they carry their operations in thus improving the quality of services that are delivered to consumers. Lastly, as academic researchers, we are required to gain get a comprehension of the practices and structures but of great importance of human motivation to fully understand the nature of an organization’s change as well as its management. On the other hand, we need to better understand the ethics, culture as well as politics of change. Moreover, we ought to criticize and openly address the current shortcomings and give effective alternatives.
In order to effectively implement change, both the long term and short term strategic plans ought to be in place. Early and adequate planning as well as an all-inclusive process will thwart resistance by workers in the company. So as to improve the degree of workers’ confidence, in strategy enactment process, their degree of competency as well as empowerment would be witnessed. The study revealed that vital skills needed for implementing change relied on the nature as well as complexity of the leadership skills, change, financial skills and relationship management skills unavoidable in all cases of change enactment. Based on this the research made a conclusion that there does not exist a universal approach to strategic management and by that its practices continue developing from time to time based on the environmental changes.
5.5 Limitations of the Study
This research laid emphasis on the change management practices at Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC that might have failed to capture every response from organizations in the industries in general and also engulfed executives who may have ignored other staff data. The involvement of the stakeholders was not well established. Based on this, the study could not conclusively give a detailed account of the success of change implantation in Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC. It was also a challenge organizing the interview sessions with the executives since they were positioned in various offices in discrete locations. Elsewhere, there were executives who were present in the organization during the major change and strategy implementation phases but had since left and the know-how could not be combined in this study.
5.6. Suggestions for further Research
A comprehensive study ought to be undertaken to define the level as well as effectiveness of the change management process. Moreover, the study ought to widen the sample size to 50 in order to incorporate each and every level of workers as these study was narrowed down to capture only the departmental heads. This can improve the quality of respondents and also aid in identifying ever failure point in change process execution. On the other hand, the research ought to be carried out in order to define the manner in which change management is fused in the organization’s long-term strategy. This will aid in ensuring that the execution change management is operative.
Carey, G., Kay, A., & Nevile, A. (2017). Institutional Legacies and “Sticky Layers”: What Happens in Cases of Transformative Policy Change?. Administration & Society, 0095399717704682.
Cummings, S., Bridgman, T., & Brown, K. G. (2016). Unfreezing change as three steps: Rethinking Kurt Lewin’s legacy for change management. Human relations, 69(1), 33-60.
Pearce, J. and Robinson, R.B (1997), Strategic Management Formulation Implementation and Control,6th edition. Irvin/MaGray-Hill
Van Dam, K., Oreg, S., and Schyns, B. (2008), Daily work contexts and resistance to organizational change: The role of leader–member exchange, development climate, and change process characteristics. Applied Psychology, 57(2), 313-334.
Nadler, D. A. (2001),Champions of change: How CEOs and their companies are
mastering the skills of radical change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Hickman, C. R., & Silva, M. A. (2018). Creating excellence: Managing corporate culture, strategy, and change in the new age. Routledge.
Di Fabio, A. (2017). The psychology of sustainability and sustainable development for well-being in organizations. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 1534.
Buckley, M. R., Wheeler, A. R., & Halbesleben, J. R. (Eds.). (2018). Research in personnel and human resources management. Emerald Publishing Limited.
Burnes, B. (2004), Kurt Lewin and the planned approach to change: A re-appraisal.
Journal of Management Studies, 41, 977-1002.
Noe, R. A., Hollenbeck, J. R., Gerhart, B., & Wright, P. M. (2017). Human resource management: Gaining a competitive advantage. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
Kirkman, B. L., Shapiro, D. L., Lu, S., & McGurrin, D. P. (2016). Culture and teams. Current Opinion in Psychology, 8, 137-142.
Grant, R. M. (2016). Towards Knowledge Based Theory of the Firm. Strategic
Management Journal, 17 Winter Special Issue, 109-122.
Kihara, S. K. (2010). Change Management Practices. MBA Project, University of Nairobi
Soumyaja, D., Kamlanabhan, T. J., & Bhattacharyya, S. (2015). Antecedents of employee readiness for change: mediating effect of commitment to change. Management Studies and Economic Systems, 54(2518), 1-15.
Brumme, H., Simonovich, D., Skinner, W., & Van Wassenhove, L. N. (2015). The strategy‐focused factory in turbulent times. Production and Operations Management, 24(10), 1513-1523.
Ansoff, H. I., Kipley, D., Lewis, A. O., Helm-Stevens, R., & Ansoff, R. (2019). Implanting strategic management. Springer.
Shah, N., Irani, Z., & Sharif, A. M. (2017). Big data in an HR context: Exploring organizational change readiness, employee attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Business Research, 70, 366-378.
Nason, R. S., & Wiklund, J. (2018). An assessment of resource-based theorizing on firm growth and suggestions for the future. Journal of Management, 44(1), 32-60.
Punnett, B. J. (2015). International perspectives on organizational behavior and human resource management. Routledge.
Hartnell, C. A., Kinicki, A. J., Lambert, L. S., Fugate, M., & Doyle Corner, P. (2016). Do similarities or differences between CEO leadership and organizational culture have a more positive effect on firm performance? A test of competing predictions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(6), 846.
Jimmieson, N. L., Peach, M. and White, K. M. (2014), Utilizing the theory of planned behavior to inform change management. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 44(2), 237.
Nadler, D. A. (2011),Champions of change: How CEOs and their companies are
mastering the skills of radical change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bonnafous-Boucher, M., & Rendtorff, J. D. (2016). Stakeholder Theory and Ethics. In Stakeholder Theory (pp. 67-78). Springer, Cham.
T power, O. (2019). Oman Energy Situation – energypedia.info. Retrieved from https://energypedia.info/wiki/Oman_Energy_Situation
Com,M.( 2019).The Oman Electricity Transmission Company SAOC https://www.medcoman.com/uploads/annual-report2013-en.pdf.
Oman, E. (2019). Retrieved from http://www.nama.om/pdf/2014_English_EHC-A_REPORT-ENG-final.pdf
Corporate Strategic Plan: Retrieved from http://www.kplc.co.ke/index.php?id=151