About Causal Claims

About Causal Claims


A causal claim refers to any assertion invoking causal relationship between variables. Therefore, causal claims appeal to our needs of believing in results like children’s behavior causing parents to react to them in particular ways, the formal devices of any novel leading us to a certain understanding of the protagonist or a holy war mentality inevitably leading to terror. The essay will focus on Ernest Hemingway who was one of America’s most outstanding novelist and a short story writer. Thesis statement:  Hemingway’s continued reputation and enduring appeal as a great writer is due to his subject matter.

Hemingway Enduring Appeal Due to His Subject Matter

Many decades after his death, Hemingway is today enjoying a comeback because of his short stories and novels. For instance, sales of his book are more than ever due to his critical reputation. Every title for Hemingway is still being printed, and the sales of his book in the US totals about seven hundred and fifty thousand copies annually up by almost twenty-five percent in the last few years. Hemingway is likely the most translated author all over the world, where his estate is said to be earning $80, 000 a year in foreign royalties (Hanneman, p8). Hemingway is the subject to the growing number of scholarly meetings, workshops, reviews, and newsletters. Hemingway is not only appreciated by only scholars but also authors in college and secondary schools.

In the vast collection of masterpieces, Hemingway has used his characteristics in setting a moral code for several heroes. The sportsmanlike code is based on the admiration of the real virtues of endurance and courage. Whereas the system is not necessary for sustaining society, it confirms the characters as a single set of characteristics. One of the main elements of the code is stoic endurance in the face of calamity. For instance, Hemingway’s code heroes possess a grin-and-bear-it attitude even in the direst tragedies and bouncing back seemingly unaffected. Therefore, Hemingway is testing the moral of the character in confrontations with death.

In his works, Hemingway emphasizes the value of emotional control through his protagonist’s struggle. According to the critic, Irving Howe Hemingway’s a classic in the American short story and possibly has come back because the short stories appear to be thriving more than the novel. Hemingway’s short stories and books have been perceived as romanticizing war and sexists, qualities which were indeed objectionable to literary intellectuals and tastemakers during and even after the period of the Vietnam war. Furthermore, Hemingway image as a big-game hunter, hard drinker, bullfighter and a boxer which was an image cultivated by a generation of aspiring writers. While glorification of war and sexism are widely frowned upon in literacy circles enough time has passed such that Hemingway does not seem quite so much like a warrior and Americans are no longer as reluctant in celebrating physical coverage. Furthermore, young readers and critics have to come to realize things which were overlooked by Hemingway’s detractors during the 1960s (Hanneman, p7). The issue that was ignored is the fact that Hemingway as an individual and author was an active, dedicated anti-Fascist when famous Americans and Europeans remained to debate the merits of Hitler, Mussolini, and Franco.

If we consider Hemingway’s reputation for being paradoxically benefiting from his ideology, then it is also profiting from the opposite tendency of examining a writer’s artistry instead of his politics. In a society which is considered a bit conservative or centrist where literature is appreciated as a form of art and not as social comment Hemmingway has risen to the top since it is more apparent than ever that he was among superb craftsman. There has been strong demand for Hemingway such that Scribner’s currently began publishing mass-market paperback editions for many of Hemingway titles in complementing its eighteen trade paperback titles. Mass-market paperbacks are less expensive and smaller compared to the trade paperbacks which always resemble the hardcover edition in graphics quality and size.

Furthermore, Hemingway’s appeal in his works is primarily shown by his ability to exciting and entertaining readers through infusing enduring values into a fascinating story. For instance, Hemingway celebrates the love of man for a woman, woman for man and the more spiritual love among males. Hemingway ideas were enduring but straightforward. For instance, the notion of triumph in defeating ‘The Old Man and the Sea.’ Besides, Hemingway’s writing style and strong personality have thrust him in and out of fashion various times since he made his mark about the American literary landscape with “The Sun Also Rises,” which was published at the time he was twenty-seven years old and living in the emigrant Paris in the ’20s (Hemingway, p12). at the time he was thirty years he had written “A Farewell to Arms” and “Death in the Afternoon.”

Hemingway had fame and reputation, a public character which without no doubt worked against his literary reputation even as it made him one of the best-known names on earth. In the small world of Hemingway first British and American readers, the name H.L Mencken must have appeared as ineradicable in the twenties. Also, in THE SUN ALSO RISES there is a two-and-half-page passage when Jake and Bill are fishing in which affectionate fun is made of Mencken 1. The two and a half pages must be baffling or perhaps expendable to most of the Hemingway’s present readers. For instance, upon crossing the author’s mind, he was betting on Mencken’s posterity it would have seemed to be a fair bet at that time. One of the numerous explanations of Hemingway’s “fatal attraction” is much to do with the glamorous interest of locale and subject matter, the fishing, big-game hunting, bullfighting as well as the general flexing of muscles a long way from the New York and London coteries (Nina, p24). Hemingway remembers one of the funny conversations with James Joyce where Joyce expressed anxiety concerning the ‘suburban’ nature for the subject matter. Nora thought the situation to be a good point where she indicated that Jim ought to have done a spot of the lion hunting.

The other aspect which makes Hemingway’s subject matter to be enduring is the explanation that with atomic prose developed a new way in the description of physical experience and world emerges. The most exciting thing is that Hemingway mainly helped in burying the notion, if anyone seriously held it and that the more one piles on the adjectives the nearer the individual gets in describing the thing. For instance, refinement against the object meaning that the more the articles a person uses, the more accuracy is demanded of the description and the more grail retreats. An individual might think that the “law of refinement” can work in the opposite direction such that the sparer the prose, the more successful the transfer of an idea or image from writer to reader although what is demonstrated is that prose in itself cannot describe it at all. Hemingway words rely much on what the reader is bringing to them where the associative power of words instead of their meaning makes prose to work on their ultimate level. Therefore, it is indicative that Hemingway’s achievement whether instinctive or calculated was getting the effects through making the reader to do the work.


Hemingway is considered to be an author who was in the right place at the right time for enduring fame. The writer’s reductive style suited the harsh and rough times of machine guns or blood. Therefore, the best way of describing the Hemingway style is being distilled. For instance, everything has been reduced to the purest form including the structure, prose as well as the storytelling. Simplicity cannot be considered to be childish especially regarding the subject matter.



Works Cited

Hanneman, Audre. Ernest Hemingway: A Comprehensive Bibliography. Vol. 2067. Princeton University Press, 2015.

Hemingway, Ernest. The Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway: The Hemingway Library Edition. Simon and Schuster, 2017.

Nina, Jaghinyan Nin Jaghinyan. “The Characteristics of Ernest Hemingway’s The Characteristics of Ernest Hemingway’s Individual Style Individual Style.”