American Presidency Questions and Answers

American Presidency Questions and Answers

Question 1

Research methods

Typically, acquiring the most appropriate way of data collection is essential in any research.  However, it is imperative to consider factor such as research goal and time for data analysis and collection before selecting the most appropriate data collection technique.  A study on the president or the presidency can be analyzed qualitatively using interviews or observations. Qualitative methods ensure that a researcher is in a position to acquire more accurate data or information. Observation is essential in data collection because it gives first-hand knowledge through observing a participant and recording the data collected (Bryman, 2016). However, observation cannot entirely be relied upon because a researcher might be biased and therefore it needs to be supplemented by surveys. Surveys on the presidency will ensure that different opinions from various respondents are collected and analyzed collectively. This method provides that the purpose of data collection is not biased and covers different aspects of the research project.

However, surveys have a disadvantage since some respondents may not give accurate information or they might be biased and therefore causing inaccurate data analysis and conclusions.  Using surveys also ensures that a researcher is in a position to collect more data quickly even though in most cases the evidence lacks detailed information.  Additionally, using interviews will also be essential in my data collection and analysis.  Interviews offer a face to face media where a researcher can quickly collect data by asking participant questions. The questions may be structured or unstructured depending on the research being conducted. For our research on the presidency, I will use structured interviews to ensure that specific questions will be asked in a particular order to provide that there is easier data analysis.

Using questionnaires is also an appropriate data collection mechanism for our research on the presidency.  Questionnaires ensure that respondents are in a position to answer any questions at the same time. This is essential when trying to collect data from many respondents or respondents who are not in the same physical location. However, while using questionnaires, it is critical to ensure that all the ethical consideration of the study is considered. In addition to that, the respondents should be adequately briefed on the purpose of the study to ensure that they take part in the study. Questionnaires are compatible with recorded interviews, and therefore they can be carried out on face to face basis, through the computer or the phone.

Questionnaires provide efficient, cheap and quick data collection from a crowd.  However, some respondents may lie during data collection, and this may render the entire process of data collection unreliable and ineffective. Therefore, it is essential to ensure that the respondents give accurate responses by providing that they understand the significance and purpose of the study.

Question 2: Role of the constitutional convention and its dilemmas

The role of the constitutional convention was to spearhead the fight to preserve the power given to smaller states in the United States and to prevent exploitation of the larger nations towards the lower states as a result of their massive resources. These steps by the members ensured that a modern form of the presidency could be created in America.  Initially, the constitutional convention was composed of 55 delegates who focused on fighting on behalf of the smaller states (Fraser, 2017). However, they faced different challenges that made meeting their objective a mirage. Firstly, the issue of slavery was very rampant in the United States. However, through the three fifth rules, slaves were represented in the fight for civilization before Congress took over all aspects of slavery. Representation was also a dilemma since large states were well described as a result of their large population while smaller countries were not well represented. However, the lower states still fought for equality and fair representation.

For example, if measures such as the great compromise were not implemented smaller states could not be represented in, and it would be challenging to have a president from other minority groups in America.  The grand compromise ensured that citizens democratically elected the house of representatives while the house of senates represented different states in America (Shi and Tindall, 2016).  This was essential because it ensured that the will of American citizens was treated with respect since America is composed of different ethnic diverse communities.  Commerce was also an issue for the delegates since the article of confederation enabled different states to compete against each other. This made it easy for different countries to create trade barriers and impose unnecessary taxes on products.

Additionally, there were different stakeholders present during the enactment of the constitution in Philadelphia in 1787. One prominent figure was James Madison who is currently viewed as the father of the constitution.  James Maddison ensured that he conducted adequate research of his allies and opponents from all the 13 states. He also championed the process of vote counting to ensure that America got rid of its weak system of Articles of Confederation.  In addition to that, the increasing failures of the Article of confederation which included losing important wars to the native Americans made them loose territories such as Mississippi and Louisiana to the Spanish regime.

Furthermore, there were a lot of trade disputes between the states which made the implementation of the constitution difficult at first.  These issues made it hard for George Washington to remain in his retirement, but at the same time, he was reluctant to put his reputation on the line.  Additionally, other stakeholders like Samuel Adams ignored the constitutional convention making it difficult to be implemented in different states such as West Virginia.

Question 4

George Washington presidency

Issues and problems

Typically, after the counties enacted a new constitution in 1787, three distinct branches of the federal government of America were introduced. These branches were composed of the presidency, Congress and the courts. This led to George Washington’s presidency in the year 1789 (Shi and Tindall, 2016).  As the head of state, and head of America’s administrative division, George Washington was responsible for enforcing the constitution and all its obligations. However, George Washington alongside other members of his government realized that the law did not solve all the problems that America faced.  After the creation of a centralized government, there was an issue about who would be responsible for the debt acquired from France. This led to the creation of a national bank that would ensure that the debt problem was fixed as proposed by Alexander Hamilton. However, Thomas Jefferson was against Hamilton’s proposal stating that it would empower the federal government to misuse and abuse its powers.

Through George Washington’s regime, the whiskey rebellion in 1791 and the French revolution of 1789 were witnessed. Additionally, his centralized form of government ensured that steps were made to ensure that America was in a position to clear its national debt (Shi and Tindall, 2016). This was essential for the American presidency because it gave other presidents who came after him a clear sense of direction to follow.  In addition to that, George Washington also fought against unfair representation and discrimination in America. He urged future leaders to stop focusing on political alliances, different parties, ideologies, and political factions to make crucial decisions that affected the citizens.  His ideologies and behavior shaped future presidencies in America because most of the leaders who came into office were focused on making America a better and united country.

George Washington was at a time highly concerned about the American presidency. Therefore, he set aside the afternoon for conducting meetings with the public to ensure that their needs and wants were clearly outlined.  In addition to that, George Washington was also able to reject bills which were as a result of ideologies that did not necessarily reflect the will of the people.  He rejected the Bill of appointment of tabled in April 1792. Additionally, he ensured that Americans were tolerant of religion as witnessed in Rhode Island synagogue.  Washington promised the religious freedom of worship by providing that every citizen enjoyed their fundamental human right.  At the end of his term, George Washington gave a memorable speech which warned future leaders against party spirit and championed democracy. Washington focused on morality and education of American citizens and warned leaders against sectionalism and foreign alliances.  This ensured that George Washington is among the most prominent leaders who ever live and ruled over the United States.

Question 5

Thomas Jefferson perception of the presidency

Jefferson was located in France as an American minister during the launch of the constitution in 1787; he greatly influenced the creation of the federal government through his different correspondence. According to Jefferson, the presidency was an institution mandated with the responsibility of designing, planning and constructing the central district and national capital (Shi and Tindall, 2016). Jefferson ensured that he created a federal government with limited powers to provide that people in the position of power did not use their skills to oppress other individuals.  Jefferson also believed that control should be passed peacefully from electoral losers to winners during presidential elections in America.

For Jefferson to buy the Louisiana territory from the French revolution, he was open to adjusting his perception of the American constitution.  However, he rejected foreign policies on separation of state and church and the importation and exploitation of slaves. This shows that Jefferson was willing to compromise to expand his territories. However, he had strong beliefs and ideologies which he was not ready to compromise in the process. Jefferson was able to ensure that during his presidency he was able to transform America’s presidency into a transparent and democratic office (Shi and Tindall, 2016). He managed to capture more states and denounce slavery and termed it as a violation of human rights across the globe.

Additionally, he summoned Congress to criminalize slavery, and this led to a ban on the importation of slaves, and this increased the tension between Britain and America.  Jefferson also shaped the Republican political philosophy.  These are some of the reasons why Jefferson is considered as one of the esteemed presidents in American. His leadership style and laws ensured that every American citizen was represented and in a position to enjoy absolute freedom.

Throughout the life of Thomas Jefferson, he argued that slavery was essential and believed that the white race was superior to the black competition.  Thomas Jefferson owned different slaves throughout his regime, and this made it difficult for him to introduce measures to reduce or mitigate slavery across America.  When he wrote the declaration of independence, he explicitly acknowledged that all men were created equal but also supported slavery.  He also thought that Africans and Americans could not easily coexist peacefully in America.  After retiring as the American president, Jefferson settled down in Monticello and continued to follow his passion in architecture, gardening, music, and reading.  He was also responsible for creating the University of Virginia, where he established the school of building ensuring that the institution admitted students from all religious affiliations.  This is one of the reasons why Thomas Jefferson is among the most influential American presidents to rule the United States.




Bryman, A. (2016). Social research methods. Oxford university press.

Fraser, R. (2017). A machine that would go of itself: The Constitution in American culture. Routledge.

Shi, D. E., & Tindall, G. B. (2016). America: A narrative history. WW Norton & Company.

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