Bailey, Z. D., Krieger, N., Agénor, M., Graves, J., Linos, N., & Bassett, M. T. (2017). America : Equity and Equality in Health 3 Structural racism and health inequities in the USA : evidence and interventions. The Lancet, 389(10077), 1453–1463. (17)30569-X

Bailey analyzes structural racism and the influence it has on the health sector by looking at two unique and interlinked methods that are stressed in the available literature which includes, residential discrimination and access to quality healthcare. The source of the elements of structural racism is evident in the healthcare sector. I will use Bailey’s literature work to explain the predominant theme of structural racism which is evident in the health sector in the United States of America.

Blaisdell, B. (2016). Schools as racial spaces : understanding and resisting structural racism, 8398(February).

Blaisdell explores schools as avenues of racial segregation and gives examples of schools as ethnic spaces whereby, he explains that whiteness controlled access. The highlight is on how fundamental understanding of races was essential to the efforts and how to counter structural racism through analysis of racial spaces. I will use this article by Blaisdell to further reinforce the topic of structural racism in yet another sector of the country, the schools. The source is also essential in giving the solution to structural racism after understanding its meaning.


Bonilla-silva, E. (2015). Rethinking Racism : Toward a Structural Interpretation, 62(3), 465–480.

Bonilla examines the conventional perspectives and other approaches to the subject of racism and discusses the shortcomings of those approaches. The directions given by the alternative literature framework are his guiding light in the advancement of his structural theory of racism. I will use Bonilla’s work in a literature review by describing the main limitations of other concepts of racism while highlighting the ones that are applicable.

Boyd, R. W. (2018). Comment Police violence and the built harm of structural racism. The Lancet, 6736(18), 1–2. (18)31374-6

Boyd explores the less examined section of people and illustrates how the brutality by police gives rise to inequality in the mental health of a given society. Boyd’s in his overall contribution focuses on the violence of the police which contributes to structural racism. Boyd’s work will assist me in elaborating the structural racism seen through the police force treatment of a section of the population.

Hardeman, R. R., & Medina, E. M. (2018). Structural Racism and Critical Race Theory : Contributions to Adolescent Health Inequities and Outcomes, 55–63.

Herderman by reviewing critical race theory critically looks into racially and ethnically inclined differences in the health of the adolescent. Through his literature work, Herderman focuses on structural racism, activities, beliefs, and structures of the institutions that form and sustain racialized results on adolescent health. I will use this article to explain the race theory and other important systems of achieving equity in the health sector and particularly the adolescent.


Kundnani, A. (2007). The End of Tolerance; Racism in 21st-Century Britain.

Kundani in his book attempts to shed light on how global forces and intellectual currents relates to personal experiences and the impact it has on communities and families. The vivid analysis Kundani offers on the empirical and theoretical framework follows a grand tradition of the Institute of Race Relations. I will use Kundani’s work in explaining how structural racism has been a global issue and its impacts on the families and communities.

Mccluney, C. L., Schmitz, L. L., Hicken, M. T., & Sonnega, A. (2017). Structural racism in the workplace: Does perception matter for health inequalities? Social Science & Medicine.

Mccluney examines the linkage between racial health inequalities and structural racism through labor market that is unequitable resulting in an imbalance in psychosocial workplace environments. This article will assist me in explaining how structural racism is rampant in work and the way perception plays a role in the racism topic.

Mesic, A., Franklin, L., Cansever, A., Potter, F., Sharma, A., Knopov, A., & Siegel, M. (2017). Shootings at the State Level. Journal of the National Medical Association.

In this article, Mesic attempts to explain the black, white disparities and the state level structural segregation and the brutal police handling of unarmed victims. This article will help me tell how structural racism is a crucial predictor in the black-white disparities in terms of police brutality and killing.


Pierce examines the whole topic of structural racism in terms of injustice as opposed to disrespect. In his arguments, he indicates how beliefs, intentions, and actions of individuals can be given a full account and how those elements relate. This piece of work will be necessary to me in distinguishing the difference between racism as a kind of disrespect and as an injustice.

Riley, A. R. (2017). Neighborhood Disadvantage, Residential Segregation, and Beyond — Lessons for Studying Structural Racism and Health.

Riley’s review elaborates the findings on the importance of the disadvantage on the neighborhood and residential discrimination to the health study and structural racism. Current literature is used in the proposition of its lessons of moving beyond traditional neighborhoods. I will use Riley’s finding in elucidating structural racism that is evident in the health sector as well as residential segregation.

Series, W. P. (2004). Structural racism and youth development issues, challenges, and implications.

This series examines structural racism framework and its application on the youth field while focusing on the local institution and cultural context where the youth develop. I will use the literature work to achieve my objective of explaining structural racism, by considering ways in which policies and practices in education, juvenile justice, and labor markets give rise to racially likely outcomes among the youth.