When the arrow entered the chest cavity, it penetrates through a serous membrane in the chest cavity. The membrane is called pleural membrane. The pleural membrane is divided into the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura the space between them is known as pleural cavity.
The pleural membranes are located on the outer side of the lungs and the inside of the rib cage. The pleuron consists of the visceral and parietal cell layers. It comprises of squamous epithelial cells of mesothelial descent. Both the visceral and parietal membranes are made up of one layer of epithelial cells that are held to lamina propria. The pleura reduces friction by lubricating the lung with pleural fluid. It also helps keep the lung in position.
The autonomic nervous system is the part of the nervous system that coordinates various involuntary activities in the body like breathing. It comprises of two adversary sets of nerves the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The earlier connects internal organs to the central nervous system. In this case study, the arrow might have damaged the nervous system when exiting posteriorly. The patient might exhibit dizziness and fainting caused by the drop in blood pressure due to bleeding. The patient might have a fast heart rate than usual accompanied by rapid and shallow respiration. A weak pulse is observed due to reduced blood volume ( Nardelli et al. 2015).
The first arrow entered the patient’s body anteriorly into the right side of the thoracic cavity, deep up to the posterior in a lateral position to the distal side. The first arrow damaged intercostal muscles, the right lung, ribs, and skin tissue.
The cardiovascular system is an organ system that facilitates transport of oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of the body, and deoxygenated blood from body parts (except the lungs) to the lungs. The first arrow will affect the pulmonary circulation by reducing the blood pressure of the blood delivered by the pulmonary artery. The blood in systemic circulation is improperly oxygenated and reduced in volume. The second arrow potentially punctures the carotid artery and the jugular vein preventing oxygenated blood from reaching the head.
Complete loss of feeling in the affected area. Weakness of the arm near the injury. Fatigue. Arrow injury causes demyelination of axons leading to inability to conduct nerve impulses.
Neuromuscular junction contains the synaptic end bulb, the motor end plate, and the synaptic cleft. Essential organelles are mitochondria that are energy powerhouses and synaptic vesicle that contain acetylcholine.
Tracheal cartilage 2. Trachealis muscle 3. Respiratory epithelium.
Lung collapse is resulting from a puncture to the lung occasions tracheal deviation due to an imbalance in the intrathoracic pressure in the chest cavity. The windpipe is pushed toward the side with less pressure.
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Nardelli, M., Valenza, G., Cristea, I. A., Gentili, C., Cotet, C., David, D., … & Scilingo, E. P. (2015). Characterizing psychological dimensions in non-pathological subjects through autonomic nervous system dynamics. Frontiers in computational neuroscience, 9, 37.
Uemura, A., Nakata, M., Goya, S., Fukayama, T., & Tanaka, R. (2017). Effective new membrane for preventing postthoracotomy pleural adhesion by surface water induction technology. PloS one, 12(6), e0179815.