Gordon Willard Allport was an American psychologist born in November 11th, 1897 born in a family of four children. He graduated with a bachelor's degree in philosophy and economics from Harvard University from 1919 before traveling to Istanbul, Turkey, to teach philosophy and economics. Gordon was an influential scientist in the field of psychology with much of his works concentrated in understanding the study of a person's personality making him be recognized as one of the founding figures of personality psychology (Kendra, 2018). Gordon is also remembered for rejecting the earlier dominant schools of thought of psychoanalysis and behaviorism. He developed his trait theory which states that an individual's personality can be analyzed based on 4,500 different traits categorized under cardinal traits, central traits, and secondary traits.
David Emile Durkheim was a French sociologist and psychologists that lived between 15th April 1858 and 15th November 1917. Durkheim was born of a Jewish family where he learned Jewish religious teachings which made him consider the option of being a rabbi. After the death of his father, Durkheim was burdened with heavy responsibilities and sorrow which influenced him to study the aspect of spiritual progress among individuals (Nicki, 2018). He argued that both grief and effort were more conducive to a person's spiritual development than the pleasure of joy (Grusky, 2018). He constructed various sociological and
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