1. The urinary system does all of the following, EXCEPT it
2. Conical structures that are located in the renal medulla are called
3. The region known as the macula densa is part of
4. The cells of the macula densa and the juxtaglomerular cells form the
5. A glomerulus is
6. The following is a list of the blood vessels that carry blood to the kidney.
7. The process of filtration is driven by
8. The mechanisms for maintaining the solute concentration gradient in the renal medulla require
9. Which of the following is greater?
10. The antidiuretic hormone
11. In the loop of Henle
12. Which hormone stimulates the thirst mechanism most?
13. All of the following are components of ECF, except
14. Which hormone plays a role in determining the rate of sodium absorption and potassium loss?
15. You are caring for a patient who has been vomiting and having diarrhea for the past five days. You suspect that his electrolyte levels are
16. Which hormone affects the osmotic concentration of urine without affecting any ion levels?
17. The most common problems with electrolyte balance are caused by an imbalance between gains and losses of
18. The higher the plasma concentration of aldosterone, the more efficiently the kidney will
19. Angiotensin II produces a coordinated elevation in the ECF volume by
20. Renal failure can result in
21. Intracellular fluid (ICF) is found in
22. The principal cation in intracellular fluid is
23. When water is lost, but electrolytes are retained
24. Consuming a meal high in salt will
26. When the level of sodium ion in extracellular fluid decreases,
27. Excess potassium ion is eliminated from the body by
28. The amount of potassium secreted by the kidneys is regulated by
29. Calcium reabsorption by the kidneys is promoted by the hormone
30. Each of the following statements concerning chloride ions is true, except that
31. The primary role of the carbonic acid–bicarbonate buffer system is to
32. Acidosis can cause all of the following, except
33. Hypoventilation would cause
34. In response to respiratory alkalosis, the
35. Prolonged vomiting can result in
36. A person with emphysema will exhibit signs of
37. A person with chronic diabetes will exhibit signs of
38. A person who chronically consumes large amounts of antacids to settle an upset stomach may risk
39. To survive, humans must maintain a normal volume and composition of
40. A _____ acid is an acid that can leave solution and enter the atmosphere
41. The reproductive system
42. Projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septae, divide the testis into
43. Straight tubules originate at the seminiferous tubules and form a maze of passageways called the
44. The spermatic cord is
45. Interstitial cells produce
46. The sustentacular cells of the seminiferous tubules do all of the following, except that they
47. Sperm production occurs in the
48. Sperm develop from stem cells called
49. As developing sperm cells begin the process of meiosis, they become
50. The cells that are formed at the end of meiosis are called
51. Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by
52. The following is a list of structures of the male reproductive tract.
53. The structure that carries sperm from the seminal vesicle to the urethra is the
54. The tubular structure that produces a secretion that contains fructose, prostaglandins, and fibrinogen is the
55. The structure that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the
56. Seminal fluid contains all of the following, EXCEPT
57. The male organ of copulation is the
58. The portion of the penis that surrounds the external urethral meatus is the
59. The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the
60. The role of the pituitary hormone follicle-stimulating hormone in males is to
61. The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is
62. The broad ligament is
63. The organ that provides mechanical protection and nutritional support for the developing embryo is the
64. The round ligaments extend from the
65. The muscular layer of the uterus is the
66. Each of the following statements concerning oogenesis is true, EXCEPT that
67. The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers
68. A rise in the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone at the beginning of the ovarian cycle is responsible for
69. During the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle,
70. During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle
71. During the menses
72. All of the following are true of the vagina, EXCEPT that it
73. In the mammary gland, milk production occurs in the
74. The clitoris is
75. The principal hormone(s) secreted by the corpus luteum is/are
76. Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of
77. The developing follicle cells secrete
78. The hormone estradiol does all of the following, EXCEPT that it
79. All of the following occur at puberty in both sexes, EXCEPT that
80. The _____ is the inferior portion of the uterus that extends from the isthmus to the vagina
81. Which muscle draws the scrotal sac close to the body to control scrotal temperature?
82. During which stage of spermatogenesis do the cells begin meiosis?
83. The primary oocyte and its follicle cell form in the
84. DNA replicates during
85. Sustentacular cells contain or function in all of the following, EXCEPT
86. Which is the function of the ovaries?
87. Where does oocyte growth and meiosis I occur?
88. The completion of meiosis in males produces four spermatids, each containing
89. Testosterone and other androgens are secreted by the
90. The solid ball of cells that is formed after several rounds of cell division following fertilization is called a
91. The hormone that increases the flexibility of the symphysis pubis and causes dilation of the cervix during pregnancy is
92. In _____, implantation occurs somewhere other than in the uterus
93. Human chorionic somatomammotropin will not be converted to active status without
A. Explain the differences/similarities between the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system.
B. Explain how speech works – outline the major speech areas, what they do, and where they are located.
C. Differentiate between the general and special senses – provide two examples of general senses and two examples of special senses – describe where these senses are found in the body and their functional significance.
D. Explain the control of estrogen and progesterone through the endocrine system.
E. Explain the process of calcium regulation in the human body including using the concepts of homeostasis and negative feedback.
F. How is sugar regulated in the body (include both up and down regulation in the blood stream?
G. Discriminate between paracrine, autocrine, endocrine and exocrine secretions.
H. List and describe the major hormones secreted from the anterior pituitary (include the target organ/tissue, functions and one possible problem associated with its dysregulation).