Business Annotated Bibliography

Abugre, J. B. (2013). Current and desired employee communication patterns in sub-Saharan Africa: Empirical evidence on four Ghanaian organizations. Journal of African Business, 14(1), 33-46.


This study focuses on perceptions of organizational communication patterns in employees to assess internal communication behavior in organizations in Ghana.  The study specifically sought to determine how communication strategies affect employee work attitudes.  Findings indicate that employees perceived communication systems in organizations as over-centralized, and employees indicated that they preferred communicating as a team.

Bond, P. (2014). Africa Rising? Afro-optimism and uncivil society in an era of economic volatility.The Handbook of Civil Society in Africa, 233-251.


The author is affiliated with the University of KwaZulu-Natal.  In this study, the author examined the effects of afro-pessimism discourse on business and organizational communication.  It was found that Africa loses 6% of wealth every year as a result of afro-pessimistic concerns about Africa’s instability.  The author indicated that the lack of recognition of resilience and growth in Africa is often harmful to the economy.  Stereotyping was shown to have negative effects on crucial economic sectors and resulted in financial losses.  The author concluded that Africa faces many challenges, but negative assumptions and media coverage make it difficult for outside economies to conduct business in Africa and results in further marginalization and instability.

Bruwer, J. P., & Coetzee, P. (2016). A literature review of the sustainability, the managerial conduct of management and the internal control systems evident in South African small, medium and micro enterprises.Problems and Perspectives in Management, 14(2), 201-211.


The authors are associated with Cape Peninsula University of Technology and University of South Africa.  This study sought to further understand how African businesses function by analyzing management in various enterprises. Data was collected on the number of full-time employees in the organizations, annual turnover, gross asset values, and industry type.  A systematic review was conducted, and the study revealed that South African businesses face many economic difficulties, especially since the majority of small businessesexperiencefailure within three years of operation.

Chabal, P. (2014). Agency in Africa: The domestication of the modern mind. Agency and Changing World Views in Africa, 40, 41-53.

The author is associated with King’s College, London.  This research analyzed agency and afro-pessimism in discourse that affects organizational communication in African businesses.  The author noted that discourse of Africa tends to discuss economic, political, and social constraints but focuses less on agency and self-determination.  The concept of “limited success” with Africa is described as a result of approaches to deemphasize structural features of African societies and focus on a lack of structure.  This is described as an effect of colonial histories and Eurocentric discourse on political societies.  The author also addressed agency as the opposite of “makeability,” or a concept used to categorize based on political assumptions.  This study emphasized the need for research that examines agency instead of afro-pessimism in African societies.

Cross, W., To, S., &Serapiao, D.L.B. (2001). An afro-pragmatic self-reliance research. In Globalization and the New World Order. Washington, MD: Blacology Research and Development Institute.


The authors are affiliated with Howard University.  This research describes the theory of afro-pragmatism and afro-optimism.  The authors defined afro-pragmatism as the focus on self-reliance and the resilience of Africans in addressing problems and creating solutions.  This theory uses philosophical literature and narratives of experience to examine agency and self-determination in Africa.  The authors also discussed afro-pessimism and Western cynicism about sociopolitical and historical contingencies of African politics.  The authors called for the use of afro-pragmatism and afro-optimism to provide new interpretations of experience and emphasis on resilience and agency in discourse.

Hooker, J. (2012). 19 cultural differences in business communication.The Handbook of Intercultural Discourse and Communication, 29, 389.


The author is affiliated with the Tepper School of Business at Carnegie Mellon University.  This research analyzed the role that communication plays within international business correspondence.  The study is informed by cultural anthropologist Edward T. Hall’s book Beyond Culture, whichexamined the differences between low-context and high-context cultures.  The author found that global communication patterns should be continuously analyzed as international business relationships progress and grow.  In this research, communication aids, such as interpreters and Internet resources, are further examined astools that can positively aid in productive communication between international business markets.

King, A. H., &Lynghjem, T. S. (2016). Business model categories for the base of the pyramid and challenges in the South African market (Master’s thesis).Norwegian School of Economics.


The authors are associated with Norwegian School of Economics.  This research seeks to contribute to the current body of literature by identifying and exposing challenges that African businesses currently face.  The authors specifically examined business barriers in the area referred to as “The Base Of The Pyramid,” or the BOP. The authors categorize the business models that effect the BOP into four groups, including the Engaging the Entrepreneurs category, the Poverty Premium Eradication Category, the Multipurpose Product category, and the category of Value Delivery. The authors further discussed the need for further analysis that can be useful in providing contextual information on business strategies and the influence of Western discourse.

Mua, K. K. (2016). Moving from strategy to corporate communication.Harvard University. doi:


The author is affiliated with Harvard University.  This research sought to examine the Douala Stock Exchange or the DSX, which was established in Cameroon for the purpose of creating a financial market that could function in a modern capacity.  Specifically, corporate communication was analyzed to assess how management functions within the framework of the DSX.  Additionally, the influence of the DSX on the public reputation of Cameroon’s corporate identity is also analyzed.  It was found that developing business strategies that improve corporate communication can positively impact organizational productivity.

Nguimkeu, P. E. (2013). Business environment and firm performance: The case of retailing firms in Cameroon.Georgia State University, 1-22.


The author is associated with the Andrew Young School of Policy Studies at Georgia State University.  This research addresses the effect of business environment on the productivity in retail firms located in Cameroon.  Survey data was collected to identify the main factors influencing organizational environments. In addition, structural econometric analysis was used to assess how such characteristics impact performance levels.  The study found that several factors impede the progress of domestic trade in the Cameroon, including illicit trade, lack of access to credit, regulatory burden, and incompetence in the workplace.

Nienaber, H. & van der Merwe, M.M. (2015).Factors hindering strategy implementation as perceived by top, middle, and frontline managers in a South African electronics organization.Journal of Global Business and Technology, 11(2), 45-58.


The authors are associated with the University of South Africa.  In this study, the authors sought to identify factors that influence failure of strategy implementation in South Africa.  Data was collected to examine factors pertaining to frontline, middle, and top tiers of management.  The study concluded that failed implementation attempts were often influenced by issues with strategy formulation, and reform in business strategy is needed to combat challenges in management.

Nothias, T. (2013). Definition and scope of Afro-pessimism: Mapping the concept and its usefulness for analysing news media coverage of Africa. Leeds African Studies Bulletin, 74, 54-62.


The author is affiliated with Stanford University.  This study examined afro-pessimism and news media coverage in Africa.  The author described afro-pessimism as pessimistic perceptions about the ability of African countries to overcome barriers.  In this study, various literature and definitions are discussed.  The author noted that variations in definitions result in difficulties in analyzing the phenomenon.  The author concluded that oftentimes, it is difficult to recognize whether incidents should be acknowledged for their negative impacts or if focusing on negative accounts enforces stereotyping and Eurocentric ideals of progress.

St-Pierre, J., Foleu, L., Abdulnour, G., Nomo, S., &Fouda, M. (2015). SME development challenges in Cameroon: An entrepreneurial ecosystem perspective. Transnational Corporations Review, 7(4), 441-462.


The authors are associated with Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières.  In this study, the authors conducted an analysis of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and the to facilitate job creation, wealth development, and poverty reduction in African countries.  The study further discussed the significance of problems that SMEs face due to particular aspects of Africa’s business environment and the continuous destruction of resources as a result of global competition.  In the study, an analytical model by the World Economic Forum is used to identify eight aspects of entrepreneurial ecosystems, including accessible markets, human capital and workforce, financing, support system, regulatory framework and infrastructure, education and training, major universities as catalysts, and cultural support.

Tchamyou, V. (2015).The role of knowledge economy in African business.African Governance and Development Institute, 1-51.


The author, a researcher at the African Governance and Development Institute, analyzed the role that knowledge economy, or KE, plays in African business.  In this study, four prevalent KE components of the World Bank, including education, innovation, economic incentives and institutional regime, and information and communication technology were analyzed. The author further examined how KE can have a positive influence on the economy of African countries, by providing new strategies for combating unemployment and competition.

Tvedten, K., Wendelboe Hansen, M., &Jeppesen, S. (2014). Understanding the rise of African business: In search of business perspectives on African enterprise development. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, 5(3), 249-268.


The authors are affiliated with the Center for Business and Development Studies at Copenhagen Business School.  In this study, the authorsexaminedbusiness development in Africa to address the current literature findings on African enterprises.  The authors indicated that although African companies are performing well, there are challenges in understanding firm strategy.  The authors also discussed the implications of afro-pessimism that impact business performance.  The authors indicated that dialogue on African business practices should be modified and concluded that more research is needed.

van den Heuvel, J. H. M. (2008). Between optimism and opportunism: Deconstructing African management discourse in South Africa (Doctoral dissertation).VrijeUniversiteit.


The author is associated with VrijeUniversiteit.  In this research, the author examined discourse and business communication management in Africa.  The author indicated that management and leadership styles in African countries are often influenced by Western discourse on what is considered democratic.  The author further described the emphasis on associating Africa with discourse on humanity and humaneness because of the belief that suffering results in a loss of dignity and humanity.  As a result of this discourse, African businesses and governments also emphasis particular qualities that make them appear more favorable to Westerners.  The author describes “ubuntu” as an example of this.  This concept refers to a sense of togetherness and solidarity.  However, in this study, it is acknowledged that this concept is not representative of actual discourse, but a term used to appeal to Westerners.  Despite these occurrences, the agency of Africans to choose particular behaviors based on the perceived benefit should be acknowledged and addressed.

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