CCS TECHNOLOGIES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE

CCS TECHNOLOGIES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE

Abstract

Global warming is a major concern for people around the globe. One of the major causes of these concerns is the increasing level of carbon IV  oxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Several ideas have been proposed to reduce the level of carbon iv oxide that is released in the atmosphere such as carbon capture methods, the use, and storage of carbon iv oxide that limits the amount released into the atmosphere. As one of the major greenhouse gases, carbon iv oxide reduction results in the massive introduction of global warming.  In the year 2007, there were beliefs that global warming was due to the greenhouse gasses that came from human activities. However, in the year 2014, it was concluded that greenhouse gas emission had increased tremendously even before the industrial era because of economic advancement and population growth.  The effects are catalyzed by the unprecedented  CO2 together with the other gases that are always released into the air.  This report will describe the technologies and the implementation of carbon capture and storage as initiatives to reduce the level of CO2 released in the air.

Keywords: Climate Change Conference, global warming, CCS, global warming, carbon dioxide, Paris agreement.

 

Question 1

As a consequence of the increasing level of carbon IV oxide (CO2) in the atmosphere and the subsequent environmental changes in the globe, the process involving the carbon capture, use and storage have been a serious concern. The concern is high due to the continuously increasing levels of  CO2 that is responsible for the changes in the globe and global warming. For a long time, the climatic changes have been linked to the increasing use of fossil fuels due to the rapid development of technology from the beginning of the industrial revolution.  In the year 2007, there were beliefs that global warming was due to the greenhouse gasses that came from human activities. However, in the year 2014, it was concluded that the greenhouse gas emission had increased tremendously even before the industrial era because of the economic advancement and population growth (Bhave et al., 2017, 481). The effects are catalyzed by the unprecedented CO2 and other greenhouse gases concentration in the atmosphere. One of the primary drivers is the release of CO2 into the air that has been the primary reasons for the increasing concern of global warming. The increasing use of fossil fuels consumption has resulted in a massive urgency t have the best pathways that could act as the ways of mitigating against the changes in climate that result from the greenhouse effect. The policies reduce the level of the CO2 that is released in the atmosphere (Durmaz, 2018, 328). The emission of the gases is mainly driven by the increase in the population size together with the increasing economic activities and the lifestyle that the people live. Hence, technology policies are the best strategies to reduce the emission of gases.

The Paris agreement was proposed as a mitigation practice that would lower the gases release to a level below 2%. The agreement has a long term objective that increases the temperature to a level below 2degrees Celsius above the level that it was in the preindustrial period.  The increase also has to be limited to 1.5 degrees Celsius (Martinsen, Heinrichs, Markowitz, and Kuckshinrichs, 2015, 201). The figures below show the three technologies.

(Yang, Zhang, and McAlinden,2016, 71).

 

Post-combustion

This process removes the carbon dioxide from the fuel gas after the full completion of the combustion process. The post-combustion technologies have numerous advantages that are preferred by many engineers especially is it is used for the retrofitting process, and existing power is required. The technology is also applicable in small scale when used to remove the CO2 recovered for more than eight hundred units in one day (800 t/day) (Czernichowski-Lauriol et al., 2018, 1). However, the main limitation is that the post-combustion technology gives up to the parasite load. The flue gas is low and range between 7 to 14 percent for the coal that has been fired for the level lower than four percent for the gas that has been fired.  The penalty for energy and the cost that comes from the units of capture reaches the concentration if carbon iv oxide that is above 95 percent. This can then be transported and stored. Many large scale firms use this technology.

(Yang,  Zhang, and  McAlinden, 2016, 69).

Precombustion

This is the process where the fuel is pre-treated before the process of being burned. For the material of coal, the pretreatments, the process of gasification takes place in the gasifier; This is done under the low oxygen to form the syngas s shown below. The syngas is then taken through the water gas to shift the entire reaction with the steam to form more hydrogen.

The CO gas is then converted to the CO2 as shown below.

(Muratori, et al., 2017, 7607).

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) refers to the technology that captures more than ninety percent to prevent the carbon IV oxide from getting into the atmosphere (Al-Qayim, Nimmo, and Pourkashanian, 2015, 82). The use of these CCS together with renewable biomass is one of the recommendations that was made in the agreement.  The chain for CCS has three main parts involving capturing the carbon IV oxide, the transportation of the carbon iv oxide and the storage of the emissions (IChemE Energy Centre, 2018, 2). The capture technologies allow the gases to be produced during the generation of electricity and the industrial processes through the pre-combustion capturing process and the combustion of the oxyfuel (Mumford, Wu, Smith, and Stevens, 2015, 125).

.  The terrestrial CCS is valued and is a natural way f reducing the co2 mechanism.

 

(Hertwich et al., 2015, 6277).

Chemical engineers are at the forefront of

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