Global warming is a major concern for people around the globe. One of the major causes of these concerns is the increasing level of carbon IV oxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Several ideas have been proposed to reduce the level of carbon iv oxide that is released in the atmosphere such as carbon capture methods, the use, and storage of carbon iv oxide that limits the amount released into the atmosphere. As one of the major greenhouse gases, carbon iv oxide reduction results in the massive introduction of global warming. In the year 2007, there were beliefs that global warming was due to the greenhouse gasses that came from human activities. However, in the year 2014, it was concluded that greenhouse gas emission had increased tremendously even before the industrial era because of economic advancement and population growth. The effects are catalyzed by the unprecedented CO2 together with the other gases that are always released into the air. This report will describe the technologies and the implementation of carbon capture and storage as initiatives to reduce the level of CO2 released in the air.
Keywords: Climate Change Conference, global warming, CCS, global warming, carbon dioxide, Paris agreement.
As a consequence of the increasing level of carbon IV oxide (CO2) in the atmosphere and the subsequent environmental changes in the globe, the process involving the carbon capture, use and storage have been a serious concern. The concern is high due to the continuously increasing levels of CO2 that is responsible for the changes in the globe and global warming. For a long time, the climatic changes have been linked to the increasing use of fossil fuels due to the rapid development of technology from the beginning of the industrial revolution. In the year 2007, there were beliefs that global warming was due to the greenhouse gasses that came from human activities. However, in the year 2014, it was concluded that the greenhouse gas emission had increased tremendously even before the industrial era because of the economic advancement and population growth (Bhave et al., 2017, 481). The effects are catalyzed by the unprecedented CO2 and other greenhouse gases concentration in the atmosphere. One of the primary drivers is the release of CO2 into the air that has been the primary reasons for the increasing concern of global warming. The increasing use of fossil fuels consumption has resulted in a massive urgency t have the best pathways that could act as the ways of mitigating against the changes in climate that result from the greenhouse effect. The policies reduce the level of the CO2 that is released in the atmosphere (Durmaz, 2018, 328). The emission of the gases is mainly driven by the increase in the population size together with the increasing economic activities and the lifestyle that the people live. Hence, technology policies are the best strategies to reduce the emission of gases.
The Paris agreement was proposed as a mitigation practice that would lower the gases release to a level below 2%. The agreement has a long term objective that increases the temperature to a level below 2degrees Celsius above the level that it was in the preindustrial period. The increase also has to be limited to 1.5 degrees Celsius (Martinsen, Heinrichs, Markowitz, and Kuckshinrichs, 2015, 201). The figures below show the three technologies.
(Yang, Zhang, and McAlinden,2016, 71).
This process removes the carbon dioxide from the fuel gas after the full completion of the combustion process. The post-combustion technologies have numerous advantages that are preferred by many engineers especially is it is used for the retrofitting process, and existing power is required. The technology is also applicable in small scale when used to remove the CO2 recovered for more than eight hundred units in one day (800 t/day) (Czernichowski-Lauriol et al., 2018, 1). However, the main limitation is that the post-combustion technology gives up to the parasite load. The flue gas is low and range between 7 to 14 percent for the coal that has been fired for the level lower than four percent for the gas that has been fired. The penalty for energy and the cost that comes from the units of capture reaches the concentration if carbon iv oxide that is above 95 percent. This can then be transported and stored. Many large scale firms use this technology.
(Yang, Zhang, and McAlinden, 2016, 69).
This is the process where the fuel is pre-treated before the process of being burned. For the material of coal, the pretreatments, the process of gasification takes place in the gasifier; This is done under the low oxygen to form the syngas s shown below. The syngas is then taken through the water gas to shift the entire reaction with the steam to form more hydrogen.
The CO gas is then converted to the CO2 as shown below.
(Muratori, et al., 2017, 7607).
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) refers to the technology that captures more than ninety percent to prevent the carbon IV oxide from getting into the atmosphere (Al-Qayim, Nimmo, and Pourkashanian, 2015, 82). The use of these CCS together with renewable biomass is one of the recommendations that was made in the agreement. The chain for CCS has three main parts involving capturing the carbon IV oxide, the transportation of the carbon iv oxide and the storage of the emissions (IChemE Energy Centre, 2018, 2). The capture technologies allow the gases to be produced during the generation of electricity and the industrial processes through the pre-combustion capturing process and the combustion of the oxyfuel (Mumford, Wu, Smith, and Stevens, 2015, 125).
. The terrestrial CCS is valued and is a natural way f reducing the co2 mechanism.
(Hertwich et al., 2015, 6277).
Chemical engineers are at the forefront of developing CCS technologies together with the underlying research. These technologies go through various stages of development at the pilot plant. The most commonly used technologies include those that are used to capture, to transport and to store carbon ii oxide. All the elements of the ccs are diploid commercially with different levels of safety demonstrated at a wide scale.
The table below shows the advantages and limitations of the technologies for the CO2 capture technologies
|Capture processes||Applications area||Advantages||limitation|
|Post-combustion technologies||Coal-fired and gas-fired plant processing||In this case, the Technology used is more mature in comparison to them. As a result, it can be processed to retrofit the other plants;||The low level of carbon iv oxide concentrations also affects the capturing process and efficiency and effectiveness|
|Pre-combustion technologies||Coal-gasification plant processing||The high level of carbon iv oxide concentration usually enhances sorptions and the effective procedures that can be fully developed and can be deployed commercially. When used at the required scale, it can just be as effective as the others. It gives the opportunity to retrofit the others as well;||By temperatures that are associated with the heat transfer results to numerous problems as well as problems with efficiency. Use of hydrogen which gas within the full time leads to high power for parasitic requirements. The high-energy is also used for sorbent regeneration. Inadequate experiences that come from the few gasification plants operated in the magnet makes the process quite expensive as well as before issuing close to being a challenge for the system.|
|Oxyfuel combustion technologies||Coal-fired and gas-fired plant processing||The high level of carbon iv oxide concentration allows the enhancement of absorption efficiency. In addition to this, the mature separation of air is available with other technologies. The advantage is that it reduces the volume of the gas that is treated and therefore requires small equipment and other boilers.||
The high efficiency of energy drops with a penalty. Cryogenic oxygen production is always costly in the process of combustion. There are also corrosion problems that arise when the opportunistic replace.
|Chemical looping combustion technologies||Coal-gasification plant processing||The carbon iv oxide is the main products that come out of the combustion. Therefore, there is a high mixed level of carbon four oxides that still mixes with the nitrogen gas. This avoids high energy intensive hair.||The process is under development and therefore is not fully functional. There are also numerous inadequacies that result from landscape production. The inexperience of the workers is also a muscle problem.|
These technologies can also be divided into post-combustion where the cable form side is removed from the gas to live nitrogen and other minor components. Oxygen combustion is the other stage where the food is burnt with oxygen to recycle the co2 to capture the carbon iv oxide produced. Pre-combustion captcha involves integrated gasification combined with the power plant webmail is gasified to CO, CO2, and hydrogen. The main limitation of this technology is that it consumes a lot of power and therefore is not as efficient as expected (Tcvetkov, and Cherepovitsyn, 2016, 2). However, this limitation will be eliminated with continuous research and improvement on efficiency. So far, the technology does not meet there Paris agreement targets but is in the line of meeting it despite the limitations that are experienced during its implementation. During its implementation, the IGCC power plant is gasified and his band within the gas turbine. Because of the combination of chemical processing and power generation, this technology has a higher capital cost. However, it has the benefit of producing hydrogen which is an available by-product.
(Wang, Zhao, Otto, Robinius, and Stolten, 2017, 650)
This diagram shows one systematic approach for optimization of different ranges of the CCS technology stages to define the cost-effective decarbonization procedures. The continuous growth of the global CSS industry presents many challenges as well as the various opportunities for engineers who can use these technologies ( Cuéllar-Franca, and Azapagic, 2015, 82). The strong chemical engineers are putting across the STR spectrum that is needed from the development of technologies that takes into consideration the optimized carbon storage. The CCS project technology also gives the larger initiative that has proven to be quite successful. The successful commercialization process needs many initiatives to identify the existing opportunities that are at minimum cost and maximizes the profit. These technologies use the approach that is needed in the different chains of the CCS from the source of carbon IV oxide.
The three CCS technologies above all have their advantages and limitation. This part will give a vivid description of the Oxyfuel combustion technology.
In this carbon IV oxide capture method, the fuel is captured and burned in oxygen ion stead of being burned in air. It is the commonly used capture methods as it allows easy capture of carbon iv oxide. To limit the rising temperature levels, the combusting fuel gas is later on circulated and then injected into the combustion chamber. The air is injected into the combustion chamber (Pettinau, Ferrara, Tola, and Cau, 2017, 426). The fuel gas that is burned is composed of carbon dioxide and water vapor which is condensed from the cooling process. The pure carbon dioxide is the resulting stream that is transported to the site for storage. The power plant where this technology is used is based on the burning or combustion of oxygen for zero-emission circles. This is because the pre-combustion capture process and the post-combustion capture process is done by the fuel gas stream. There is a fraction of carbon IV oxide that comes from the combustion, which is the only negative or limitation to this process. However, the released carbon IV oxide eventually condense to water. To warrant the zero-emission process, the water must be disposed of appropriately. Failure to dispose of the water as expected makes it challenging to achieve the zero carbon dioxide emission. Nonetheless, it is an effective method of the other carbon IV oxide CCS technologies. The other downside or limitation of this process is that during the initial stages, there is a massive demand for energy in the air separation. The practice of carbon four oxide transportation and injection have been practiced from the 1970s in enhancing while recovered (Heuberger, Staffell, Shah, and Mac Dowell, 2016, 2497). This technology for transportation is established and can transport carbon iv for more than 6000 km through the pipeline on a worldwide scale. The technology for transport of the carbon iv oxide use that is applied commercially TRL 9, and it is most effective as a method of transportation especially when the distances to be covered is longer. Who needs implementation, there is engineering research that is fundamental to the quality of transport that are managed during the transportation procedures.
Carbon storage Technologies
Several established storage processes come with the capacity and the proven technical feasibility to subsurface geographical sequestrations. Global distribution of carbon iv oxide capacity storage is characterized by the approximation of the 11,000 Gt CO₂ capacity approximation (Pihkola et al., 2017, 7625). This value is equivalent to four-time the amount of storage required after the end of the century. Discuss approximated that their capacity of oil and gas reservoir has 1,000 Gt of the 1,000 Gt of the carbon iv oxide. Even though the storage infrastructures have successfully applied technology to store the carbon dioxide, successful implementation has remained difficult and a massive problem.
Oxyfuel combustion technology refers to access technology that is used to capture carbon iv oxide to reduce the level that exists in the atmosphere. Oxyfuel combustion process takes place through burning up well by using pure oxygen instead of using another oxidant such as air. Because nitrogen is part of air, it is not heated, and therefore the fuel combustion process is reduced. This process does not take too much well because there is a higher flame temperature but comes from the process. From a historical perspective, the main use of oxygen combustion has been in welding to cut metals such as steel. This is because oxyfuel allows the first one at high-temperature flames that can be achieved from the air twin flame. Current research 1this technology he is concerned with the process of firing power plants that are for sale fuelled. Which takes place through burning power plants through guess that is oxygen enriched instead of using all the nitrogen is removed from the input that yields as a team which is almost 98% oxygen (Pihkola et al., 2017, 7627). Carbon iv oxide is produced when there is the combustion that directly produces the gas during the removal process. The carbon dioxide capture technologies are existing in the market, and each of them has limitations. Through the use of the current technologies, the cost of making carbon capture technologies represent the highest value of all the other chains. It is the most promising area that can lower the level of carbon iv oxide as it allows technical innovation and development. Some of these technologies include (TRL9) that is employed in the chemical industry. It is also applicable in commercial projects and has been important for many years. There is a need to have further development for more efficiency especially those that will lead to lower industrial consumption of energy. This is an area where chemical engineers can make a massive contribution especially considering that the future commercial all cases are a viable option. Most of these carbon dioxide capture technologies contribute to around eighty percent of the CCS systems such as capture, and storage. The significant R&D efforts that reduce the cost and energy. The three most commonly used technologies include the post-combustion, pre-combustion and the oxyfuel combustion making this fire with pure oxygen gives too much frame temperature that has a diluted fuel gas. The fuel that has been recycled can then be used in carrying out the boiler flame. oxy-fuel carries a fuel gas that is less with 75 percent as it produces an exhaust that is primarily made up of carbon iv oxide and water (CO2 and H2O). see below
(Pihkola, et al., 2017, 7631)
This process consumes oxygen in the process of burning. This is important as it becomes more efficient. The high concentration level of carbon dioxide is more than 20 percent than the ratio of hydrogen to carbon dioxide. The fuel gas is then mixed to facilitate the facilitation of the CO2 gas separation. Hydrogen is subsequently burned in the air to produce nitrogen and water vapor in the combustion’s chamber. The precombustion capture is applied in the gasification and integrated gasification. This method is efficient and has been developed by large firms. The natural gas used contains the CH4 and is reformed to the syngas that contains the H2 together with the CO2 (Institution of Chemical Engineers, 2019, 2). The limitation of this technology is that it does not yield a high carbon dioxide percentage and can sometimes be ineffective.
There are advantages to this method being preferred. As global warming continue to become a concern to many people around the globe., many organizations are taking initiatives to enable some of the CCS technologies that are demonstrated in a different context. These initiatives have to be transparent, and the information has to be made available for everyone to access. This will promote the global learning of CCS technology, and the ideas can be borrowed by the 0ther countries. When it comes to the future of the carbon policies that go beyond the year 2020, the development of the CCS is continuously becoming the concern for everyone (Bhave et al., 2017, 488). To meet the GHG emission that has been set of below 2 percent, there are numerous complimentary ranges of technologies and other approaches that can improve the efficiency of the energy production and the adaptation of the clean fuel (Durmaz, 2018, 329). The CCS technologies are meant to reduce the CO2 level of emission even if they are difficult to deploy. This paper has reviewed the sot commonly used technologies with their advantages and limitations. Other carbon iv oxide processes capture, separates and transport the carbon iv oxide. The storage and monitoring technologies are also available in the market. The capture technologies rely heavily on the fuel that is used to produce the carbon iv oxide gas. The main technologies used are post-combustion capture technology among others. Even if the technologies that are used in the storage and capture exist, the overall CCS demands high cost and is expected to reduce with the continuous implementation.
Al-Qayim, K., Nimmo, W., & Pourkashanian, M. 2015. Comparative techno-economic assessment of biomass and coal with CCS technologies in a pulverized combustion power plant in the United Kingdom. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 43, 82-92.
Bhave, A., Taylor, R. H., Fennell, P., Livingston, W. R., Shah, N., Mac Dowell, N., … & Jones, J. 2017. Screening and techno-economic assessment of biomass-based power generation with CCS technologies to meet 2050 CO2 targets. Applied energy, 190, 481-489.
Cuéllar-Franca, R. M., & Azapagic, A. 2015. Carbon capture, storage and utilization technologies: A critical analysis and comparison of their life cycle environmental impacts. Journal of CO2 utilization, 9, 82-102.
Czernichowski-Lauriol, I., De Kler, R., Dupraz, S., Grønli, M., Quale, S., Röhling, V., … & Vellico, M. 2018. Access through ECCSEL ERIC to world-class research infrastructure in Europe for developing CCS technologies. In CCUS2018-Applied Energy Symposium and Forum 2018: Carbon capture, utilization, and storage.
Durmaz, T. 2018. The economics of CCS: Why have CCS technologies not had an international breakthrough?. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 95, 328-340.
Hertwich, E. G., Gibson, T., Bouman, E. A., Arvesen, A., Suh, S., Heath, G. A., … & Shi, L. 2015. Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms the global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(20), 6277-6282.
Heuberger, C. F., Staffell, I., Shah, N., & Mac Dowell, N. 2016. Quantifying the value of CCS for the future electricity system. Energy & Environmental Science, 9(8), 2497-2510.
IChemE Energy Centre. 2018. A Chemical Engineering Perspective on the Challenges and Opportunities of Delivering Carbon Capture and Storage at Commercial Scale. [online] Icheme.org. Available at: https://www.icheme.org/media/1401/ccs-report-2018.pdf [Accessed 8 Mar. 2019].
The institution of Chemical Engineers. 2019. Chemical Engineering Research and Design. [online] Journals.elsevier.com. Available at: https://www.journals.elsevier.com/chemical-engineering-research-and-design [Accessed 8 Mar. 2019].
Martinsen, D., Heinrichs, H., Markewitz, P., & Kuckshinrichs, W. 2015. The System Value of CCS Technologies in the Context of CO 2 Mitigation Scenarios for Germany. In Carbon Capture, Storage and Use (pp. 201-220). Springer, Cham.
Mumford, K. A., Wu, Y., Smith, K. H., & Stevens, G. W. 2015. Review of solvent-based carbon-dioxide capture technologies. Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering, 9(2), 125-141.
Muratori, M., Kheshgi, H., Mignone, B., McJeon, H., & Clarke, L. 2017. The future role of CCS in electricity and liquid fuel supply. Energy Procedia, 114, 7606-7614.
Pettinau, A., Ferrara, F., Tola, V., & Cau, G. 2017. Techno-economic comparison between different technologies for CO2-free power generation from coal. Applied energy, 193, 426-439.
Pihkola, H., Tsupari, E., Kojo, M., Kujanpää, L., Nissilä, M., Sokka, L., & Behm, K. 2017. Integrated sustainability assessment of CCS–Identifying non-technical barriers and drivers for CCS implementation in Finland. Energy Procedia, 114, 7625-7637.
Tcvetkov, P., & Cherepovitsyn, A. 2016. Prospects of CCS projects implementation in Russia: Environmental protection and economic opportunities. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 17(2).
Wang, Y., Zhao, L., Otto, A., Robinius, M., & Stolten, D. 2017. A review of post-combustion CO2 capture technologies from coal-fired power plants. Energy Procedia, 114, 650-665.
Yang, L., Zhang, X., & McAlinden, K. J. 2016. The effect of trust on people’s acceptance of CCS (carbon capture and storage) technologies: Evidence from a survey in the People’s Republic of China. Energy, 96, 69-79.