Chapter 4 and 5 questions

Chapter 4

  1. Increasing complexity creates a paradox for managers because it leads to problems of coordination, communication, and control (Slack,66). The managers, therefore, face difficulty when enhancing the organization toachieveits objectives.
  2. Formalization is the strict organizational structure that sets rules, and regulations and determines relationships within an organization. Its advantages are; consistency of leadership; this is through the rules that it creates. The other advantage is a comprehensive relationship between leaders and employees (Slack,67). However, its disadvantages are; establishes highly formal relation which hindersfriendly ties. And it also prevents any changes in interpersonal skills.
  3. The tradeoffs involved in the decision to centralize or decentralize the operations of an organization include; weighing the advantages and disadvantages of the structures. The other tradeoff is checking the economic benefits of the structure and lastly, the motivation of employees in a particular structure (Slack,77).
  4. The areas that would be feasible for managers to formalize include; rules area, this is because they are leaders in the organization. They are, therefore, required to give rules and regulations. The other area is procedures; the managers can perfectly formalize this area.
  5. In different types of sports organizations, I expect formalization to vary. Those with good leadership, I expect the relationship to be healthy. In an organization with poor leadership, I expect formalization to be weak.



Chapter 5

  1. The characteristics of machine bureaucracy are; extensive training of workers, well-defined hierarchy and high formalization. The advantages of the machine bureaucracy include; accountability, this is due to the vast system of rule and regulation. The other advantage is the impersonal nature of relationship; this creates chances of succeeding. The disadvantages are; reduced productivity and innovation, and decreased morale.
  2. Coordination varies in each of the five designs; in the simple structure, coordination enhanced direct supervision of workers. In machine bureaucracy, tasks are designed and operated in operational procedures. In the professional bureaucracy, the company standardizes the skills and qualifications required. In divisionalized form, coordination concentrate on the bigger picture of the company and lastly in an adhocracy; it enhances the horizontal sharing of authority based on competence.
  3. In adhocracy, there is a lack of formal structure combined with a variety of highly skilled workers, adhocracy adjusts to whatever situation it encounters (Slack, 100). On the other hand, the professional bureaucracy has a formal structure and doesn’t conform to changes that come its way.
  4. Adhocracies are fashionable because they are a flexible, adaptable and informal form of organization that lacks structure.
  5. Typology is classification according to the physical features while taxonomy is the general classification as applied to the living things.



Work cited

Slack, Trevor, and Milena M. Parent. Understanding sport organizations: The application of          organization theory. Human Kinetics, 2006.

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