1. According to USCS, ( Chapter 104), the term student-athlete refers to an individual who engages in, and who is eligible or may be eligible in future to engage in any intercollegiate sport (Parham, 2003). Student-athlete usually participates in a competitive sport that is sponsored by an institution that he or she is enrolled. They are usually fulltime student and athlete at the same time.
B. History of student-athlete
1. Student sport participants were not referred to as student-athlete until the late 18th century and early 19th century when interest in sports increased and competitive intercollegiate sports were introduced
2. The first popular college sports which attracted high media coverage was in the 1880s, which lend to the discovery of lucrative opportunities in the college sports.
3. This to the formation of the National Collegiate Athletic Association on March 31, 1906, to regulate athletes and protect young people from dangerous exploitive athletics practices (Hammer, 2017).
4. From then, students have been becoming a student-athlete by joining various college sports teams based on the requirements and procedures set by NCAA
C.Eligibility for student-athlete; division I
1. 1. Be a High school graduate
2. Complete 16 core courses;
i. Four years of English
ii. There years of math
iii. iii.Two years of natural/physical science
iv. iv.Two years of social science
v. Full ten core courses including Seven English, math, natural science before the seventh semester
3. 3 Earn at least 2.3 GP in your core courses
4. 4. Earn an SAT combined score or ACT sum score matching your core-course GPA on Division I sliding scale.
D. Eligibility for student-athlete; Division II
1. High school graduate.
2. Complete 16 score sources;
i. Three years of English
ii. two years of math (Algebra or Higher)
iii. Two years of natural or physical science
iv. Three additional years of English math or physical science
v. Two years of social science
3. Earn a 2.2 GPA in core courses
5. Earn an SAT combined score or ACT sum score matching your core-course GPA
II. Benefits of being a student-athlete
A. Financial interests
1. Student-athletes have access to athletic scholarships help reduce the substantial burden of student loans; more than 150,000 student-athlete receive $ 2.4 billion in the athlete
2. Academic scholarships
3. Federal Pell Grants.
4. Division 1 students athletes have access through their campus and conference offices to more than $75 million from NCAA’s Student Assistance Fund, which is intended to help student-athlete fly home in events of family tragedy, purchase a winter coat or other needed clothing that they might not afford (Parham, 2003) .
B. Non-financial benefits
1. Improved quality of life through access to college education, primarily through the scholarship of students who would otherwise not have qualified for college due to financial constraints (Hammer, 2017).
2. Access to academic support services such as state-of-the-art technology and tutoring, access to athlete focused academic advisors and traditional academic advisors.
3. medical care
4. Access elite training opportunities including top-notch coaching, equipment, and training facilities.
5. They benefit from access to cafeteria ‘training tables’ and nutritionists hired by the schools to ensure a healthy living.
6. student-athletes have an opportunity to travel across the country and around the world for competitions during the foreign tour, NCAA championship and regular season
7. By competing in collegiate sports as a student-athlete, one gains valuable skills including cooperation and teamwork, leadership and time management that are crucial in the real world, hence leading to personal development and positive character building.
8. College sports provide an opportunity for employees to build meaningful relationships with their peers, potential sponsors and other people that not only shapes their social life but opens career and employment choices (Hammer, 2017).
C. Other indirect non-financial benefits
1. NCAA provides resources to school as part of the Academic Enhancement Fund, that indirect benefits the athlete.
III. Why college athlete should be paid
A. Amount of time spent on athletics
1. A typical division 1 college football player spends 43.3 hours per week, which is more than an average American employee by 3.3 hours (Simons, 2009).
2. During football champions and other competitions, they are forced to miss their classes, especially during spring.
3. NCAA men’s basketball tournament affects six days of classes ad this should be compensated.
4. More than 80% of their time is spent out of class in sports. Hence they are employees, not students.
B. NCAA is a cash cow.
1. NCAA earns all its revenue from college sports; hence college athletes are its employees and should be paid.
2. NCAA earns more than most of biggest public companies, and such funds should directly benefit the athlete
3. It makes more than 11 billion dollars annually, and pocketing such amount without paying its ‘employees’ who are the players is illegal.
C. NCAA acts just like other employers
1. NCAA does recruitment and bans students athletes just like any other company that hires and fires employees, hence failure to pay them is unfair; unethical.
2. Students speech on facebook, tweeter and social media is regulated and used as means on advertising.
3. College sports help attract good caliber students to join colleges, hence as an advertiser of a college education, student-athletes should be paid.
D. Not all revenue collected is used to improve education
1. Much of the considerable revenue collected does not go back to the classroom, and a large portion goes to few directors, college administrators, and coaches.
2. The ratio of the amount spent to benefit students to the total earning is less than 20%. Therefore the students should be paid (Comeaux & Harrison, 2011).
E. Payment would help improve college athlete welfare
1. Most college athletes are struggling with expenses for their daily upkeep, living a miserable life.
2. Salary would help the student-athletes learn how to manage their finances, an essential skill in life.
3. Paying athlete would not only benefit them but the NCAA also by attracting good caliber athlete and making sports more competitive
Considering millions of money that the NCAA makes out of college sports, they should pay student employees not only to share the profit but also to ensure the athlete enjoy and benefit from their sweat. Failing to pay student-athletes is both unethical and immoral.
Parham, W. D. (2003). The intercollegiate athlete. The counseling psychologist, 21(3), 411-429.
Hammer, C. H. (2017). Unsportsmanlike conduct: Exploiting college athletes. University of Michigan Press.
Comeaux, E., & Harrison, C. K. (2011). A conceptual model of academic success for a student-athletes. Educational Researcher, 40(5), 235-245.
Simons, H. D., (2009). Academic motivation and student athlete. Journal of College Student Development, 40, 151-162.