Research paper (worth 40% of your grade, deadline 20 November): For this written assignment contrast and compare the head of state offices in Germany, France, Japan and the United Kingdom, applying the concepts we discussed in class to understand the similarities and differences between these countries. Define the concepts you use (do not use Wikipedia definitions, but rely on academic sources of information). Include a short introduction stating your research question, the description of the four countries in terms of their executive, a section commenting on the impact of the governmental structure on the quality of democracy in Germany, France, Japan and the United Kingdom, and a conclusion summarizing your findings. To assess the quality of democracy, you can use the Democracy Index for 2016 and the Human Development Index for 2016, reporting the values in table(s). Note that all four countries are considered consolidated democracies. Use two recent articles published in academic journals as sources of information. Also use the constitutions of the four countries, if available (they are available on the internet, except for the British constitution). Include a list of 8 relevant references (the two articles, the three constitutions, plus three other articles, chapters, books or government reports) at the end of the paper. The essay should be around six (6) double-spaced pages long: half a page for the introduction, four pages for the country description and comparison, and the remainder for a summary of the similarities and differences between the four democracies. Guidelines for research papers: • Did you include a research statement in your introduction? • Did you define basic concepts? • Did you divide the paper into sections, each with a clear title that reflects its content? • Did you use the constitutions? • Did you integrate your references into the text? You can use either footnotes or in-text references. • Did you comment on the quality of democracy in each country? • Is your comparison balanced? You should devote roughly the same amount of space to each country. • Did you include the bibliography at the back of your paper? • Is your paper written in Times New Roman 12, 1 inch margins, double-spaced? No space is required between paragraphs; make sure each paragraph starts with a TAB. • Did you use any Wikipedia information? You should not. • Did you use scholarly books and articles to ground your comparison? • Do you have eight sources in total? Are all of them included in the Bibliography?