Belonging to a particular ethnic group or race should not put you at the frontline of getting heart-related diseases. However, this is one of the factors contributing to the likeliness of a person to suffer from heart diseases or their survival rate. Cardiovascular-related diseases remain to be the core cause of the high mortality rates in the United States of America. Surprisingly, heart-related diseases act proportionally on the different racial and ethnic groups (Graham, Guendelman, Leong, Hogan, and Dennison, 2006). Several groups have higher risks of conducting cardiovascular diseases and their associated risks in the United States of America.
More than 6.2% of the American people suffer from coronary heart disease which attributes to one in every seven deaths in the states. Although several parties have keyed out the disparities, a global change would significantly drive significant changes. The U.S. population is rapidly increasing with a reported 44.2% of the people belonging to the minority group born within eighteen years since 1982. While 37.8% of this population encompasses the non-whites in America, the Hispanics and African-Americans make up about thirty percent of this population (Leigh, Alvarez, Rodriguez, 2016).
Recent studies show that the minority groups in the United States of America have a higher risk of conducting heart-related diseases than native whites. These minority groups also receive different revascularization treatments while they are amongst the majority in deaths from heart diseases (Leigh, Alvarez, Rodriguez, 2016). This data is after the comparison with the white and non-Hispanic population. Therefore, it is significant to address the disparities related to heart diseases diagnosis from the knowledge of conduction and long-term prevention. The public health care efforts are eliminating health disparities with the likes of the American Heart Association (AHA) Strategic Impact Goals. There have been several studies reflecting on these disparities. This review aims at key out the recent report examining heart diseases and how they affect the minorities in the United States of America.
Racism and ethnicity differences are the core challenges stipulating stress to societies and individuals in the United States of America. There are consequences physiologically related to chronic exposures in the neuroendocrine response due to continued chronic stress (Rodriguez et al., 2014). With time, the marginalized minority groups can get adverse effects from this stress. Currently, there is evidence that racism directly links to heart-related diseases. This is evident in that many blacks, who are among the minority in the United States of America, suffer from heart diseases accompanied by stress. However, the management of these heart diseases faces a significant challenge of racial and ethical based treatment. There is still a lack of data showing the number of individuals affected by heart diseases and stress.
Cardiovascular disease cases have been on the rise for the past few years in the United States of America. The minority groups, Hispanics and African-Americans, are significantly affected by this continued problem. The rates at which heart diseases affect people in the United States varies from one race and ethnic group to the other. According to data on heart diseases, these minorities have a health advantage over the whites. The minorities, despite the increased burden of cardiovascular diseases and social discrimination, are less likely to suffer from heart diseases than the whites. This data is as per the minority paradox that it is hard to detect cardiovascular diseases in these groups (Medina-Inojosa et al., 2014). However, this paradox brings about confusion in the assessment of the risks associated with cardiovascular diseases. This paradox makes the treatment of these diseases a problem amongst the minority groups.
Through several campaigns like the American Heart Association (AHA) campaign, it has become easy to address the cardiovascular issue. The primary goal of these campaigns aims at improving the different ways of tackling different races and their behavior (Caleyachetty et al., 2015). According to one of the reports released by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHAES), the minorities in the United States suffer more from cardiovascular diseases than the native whites. More African-Americans and the Hispanics suffer more from these cardiovascular diseases than the American whites (Folsom et al., 2011). However, all the groups can have lower rates of cardiovascular-related diseases but only if they achieve cardiovascular health.
Many people are trying to investigate into this heart disease issue with the likes of Kwagyan examining the effect of taking part in diet exercises to curb the risks associated with the heart. There was also a high risk of cardiovascular diseases to obese people among minority groups (Ketete et al., 2013). More than five hundred people enrolled in a program where they could go without oily and salty people. Before the program, an examination revealed that six percent and sixteen percent of women and men consecutively were at risk of conducting heart-related diseases. However, after the practice, the results were very confident in that the rate of mortality in the group decreased significantly — these risks reduced in line with reduced blood pressure, and blood sugar levels. Therefore, encouraging similar programs targeting minority groups in the United States of America would significantly reduce the risk of conducting cardiovascular diseases.
Cardiovascular diseases come as a result of many factors one of them being high serum cholesterol. High serum cholesterol is a hazardous factor in conducting cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the treatment of heart diseases focuses on this high cholesterol state where they can prevent it early enough before it becomes a severe problem. A study by MESA revealed that all the groups in the United States of America had equal risks of conducting dyslipidemia (Goff et al., 2006). However, the minority African-Americans and the Hispanics rarely reported their conditions to hospitals for diagnosis. Apart from the majority of whites, it is hard to control dyslipidemia amongst the minority groups. After conducting socioeconomic and access to health care research, it is evident that biological differences did not significantly rule the state of control alone.
Another risk factor for conducting cardiovascular diseases is the Lipoprotein which is of low density. Research ascertains that different races have different levels of plasma and the African-Americans have higher levels compared to the American whites (Bennet, 2008). The Lipoprotein is a signal for the risk of conducting cardiovascular diseases in all groups living in the United States of America. A gradual reduction of these plasma levels puts individuals under high risks of suffering from heart disease (Virani et al., 2012). But the minority groups posted lower chances of suffering from heart disease from reduced plasma levels. Surprisingly, the conduction of cardiovascular diseases also varied among different sexes in minority groups. These changes of having a cardiovascular disease also related to matters of obesity, cholesterol, smoking status, hypertension, and diabetes. Therefore, on the one hand, the common causes of cardiovascular diseases included obesity, high cholesterol being the critical factor, smoking, and high blood pressure among the men. The women, on the other hand, suffered cardiovascular diseases because of obesity, hypertension, and high levels of cholesterol in their blood.
After close examinations, racism directly related to the likeliness of conduction cardiovascular diseases. The minority African-Americans have higher chances of conducting cardiovascular health diseases (Kershaw et al., 2015). However, this percentage significantly decreased after several considerations in controlling ethnicity preference in offering treatments. Although many surveys ignore the African-Americans, some have gone a step ahead and addressed risks of cardiovascular diseases to this minority group. A report by the NHANES revealed that a quarter of the Asian-American was at the risk of conducting cardiovascular diseases the aged and the uneducated being the most affected. However, the conduction of these diseases varied from one gender to another. The levels of high cholesterol in the blood do not occur differently as per the sex, country of birth, age, and the level of education.
Jose, a researcher on the mortality rates from cardiovascular disease, conducted a database study on the data of the National Center for Health Statistics. He examined the records of more than ten million people. After characterizing this data on the amongst the Asian-American minorities, he made a comparison between the whites and the Asian-Americans. After further investigations, this minority group revealed to have lower rates of mortality compared to the whites (Jose et al., 2014). This data was a comparison between the genders of the two groups. However, the data changed when comparing the rates of mortality in the proportionate mortality rates of these groups. The whites showed higher rates of comparable mortality rates than their minorities. Therefore, this study was a wakeup call for researchers to study the disease patterns in the minority groups ignored in the United States of America (de Souza and Anand, 2014).
Purpose of the Study
Cardiovascular diseases remain to be the main threats to the health care system in the United States. However, it is disappointing that the rate of attacks from heart diseases continues to be race and ethnic based. The purpose of this research is to study the correlation between heart disease and the minority population in the United States. The way of administering treatment of heart disease in the United States varies according to an individual’s ethnic group race.
Methods and Participants
The study will include a random population sample of people starting at the age of eighteen years old. These are the same people who will participate in the United States of America in the period of 2019 and 2020. This will be a supported survey by the National Health Interview Surveys. According to the study, different people with heart disease will be examined and grouped according to their different ages. These reports will be personal based as per the tests carried out at that time. The risk factors of heart disease will be assessed using various instruments of surveying. The risks associated with heart disease will be analyzed using the same varying factors and other factors affecting many people in the methods of analysis. The National Health Interview Survey is an annual interview conducted to individual parties in the cross-sectional study. These surveys consider the health conditions and the behaviors of people in the minority and majority groups in the United States (Liu et al., 2014). Many of these people are uneducated and at higher risks of getting heart disease. After the participation of different parties, we will compare data from 2019 and the data to be released in 2020 by the National Health Interview Surveys. This range of data will help ensure that the size of the sample of the study and power of the statistics are big enough. Therefore, this data will ease the testing of the differences of the cardiovascular health as per race and ethnic groups, the Non-Hispanic Blacks, Non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics, African-Americans, and Non-Hispanic Asians (Liu et al., 2014). The Non-Hispanic Asians and African-Americans are among the rapidly increasing ethnic groups in the United States, and it would be very significant to address these groups.
We will then exclude the participants above the age of eighteen with missing details in the interview. After that, we will then conduct a final analysis of the remaining groups of people. The data to use should also come from the National Health Center for Health Statistics to make sure that no more institutional reviews I will need. The study will focus on the most significant chronic condition, heart disease. The conditions will then be decided based on self-reports about heart disease of the participants according to the health professionals. Other considerations in the grouping of the data will be age, gender, the status of education, the body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, and rate of physical activity. WHO classifies BMI as “underweight: <18.5, normal weight: 18.5–24.9, overweight: 25–29.9, and obesity: ≥30 kg/m2.” The status of physical activity ranges from active – >150 minutes to dormant – 10-149 minutes in a week (Liu et al., 2014).
After conducting the survey, we will do data analysis of the annual age of the mortality rates caused by heart disease. Therefore, we will use statistical software available at the national level by the state for the specified period as per the study hypothesis. The first study will include the characteristics of the people by race and ethnic group. Tests will, therefore, be conducted using the Chi-square tests. The second study will be on the people associated with smoking, education, BMI, alcohol consumption, and physical activity status. This data will be compared to the likeliness of causing heart diseases in different ethnic groups and races. Moreover, there will be an analysis using the four different varying logistic models.
The first study will adjust to age and gender while the second study will tackle age, gender, and education status. The third study will address smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption. The last research adjusted to tackle the third study issues and obesity. Similar to this study, we will examine the odds of heart disease across the sub-groups of the minority as compared to the majority of whites. Finally, all the data analysis will be performed using SAS version 9.3. We will also examine the data from the samples provided by the NHIS of weight. The significance of the statistics will be determined for the tests of the two sides at a p-value of less than 0.05.
Many of the cardiovascular studies target the whites, but due to the increasing population composition, people should generalize on the population in the United States (Pool et al., 2017). Heart disease disparities exist for the minority groups in the United States ranging from the differences in heart disease treatments. However, people should intensify knowledge about heart disease in the United States amongst the different groups. With the minority groups, there have been different disparities in heart disease risks, their treatment, and final results. Many of the variations relate to the social status of patients, their environment, and ease of access to healthcare. After addressing these challenges, it is significant to focus on their prevention alongside with their risk factor recognition and their management.
Bennet, A. (2008). Lipoprotein (a) Levels and Risk of Future Coronary Heart Disease<subtitle>Large-Scale Prospective Data</subtitle>. Archives of Internal Medicine, 168(6), 598. Doi: 10.1001/archinte.168.6.598
Caleyachetty, R. et al., (2015). Association between cumulative social risk and ideal cardiovascular health in US adults: NHANES 1999–2006. International Journal of Cardiology, 191, 296-300. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.05.007
De Souza, R., & Anand, S. (2014). Cardiovascular Disease in Asian Americans. Journal of the American College Of Cardiology, 64(23), 2495-2497. Doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.09.050
Folsom, A. et al., (2011). Community Prevalence of Ideal Cardiovascular Health, by the American Heart Association Definition, and Relationship with Cardiovascular Disease Incidence. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 57(16), 1690- 1696. Doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.11.041
Jose, P. et al., (2014). Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Asian Americans. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 64(23), 2486-2494. Doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.08.048
Kershaw, K. et al., (2015). Neighborhood-Level Racial/Ethnic Residential Segregation and Incident Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation, 131(2), 141-148. Doi: 10.1161/circulationaha.114.011345
Ketete, M. et al., (2013). Endothelial dysfunction: The contribution of diabetes mellitus to the risk factor burden in a high risk population. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 06(06), 593-597. Doi: 10.4236/jbise.2013.66075
Leigh, J. et al., (2016). Ethnic Minorities and Coronary Heart Disease: an Update and Future Directions. Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 18(2). Doi: 10.1007/s11883-016-0559-4
Liu, L. et al., (2014). The burden of Cardiovascular Disease among Multi-Racial and Ethnic Populations in the United States: an Update from the National Health Interview Surveys. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, 1. Doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2014.00008
Medina-Inojosa, J. et al., (2014). The Hispanic Paradox in Cardiovascular Disease and Total Mortality. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 57(3), 286-292. Doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2014.09.001
Pool, L. et al., (2017). Trends in Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Cardiovascular Health among US Adults from 1999–2012. Journal of the American Heart Association, 6(9). Doi: 10.1161/jaha.117.006027
Rodriguez, C. et al., (2014). Status of Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke in Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. Circulation, 130(7), 593-625. Doi: 10.1161/cir.0000000000000071
Virani, S. et al., (2012). Associations between Lipoprotein (a) Levels and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Black and White Subjects. Circulation, 125(2), 241-249. Doi: 10.1161/circulationaha.111.045120