1. The dilemmas that the organizations in the cases faced in managing diverse workers.

There are various dilemmas that the organization in the cases faced in managing a diverse workforce. The Hoosiers National Forest faced the issue of racism among its workers. We can see Cheryl Boulden talk about what is happening in the forest service departments. She says that the management in Hoosiers National Forest racially discriminates the black people in the system. We can also see as she talks about the trauma and stress, she went through when she was working in that particular department. As the only black woman in her section and one of the three black people in the whole building, she went through a lot of humiliations. She records that previously, everything was alright, but the problems started after the former supervisor retired and a new acting one was put in place. The new supervisor always mocked her and made cruel remarks about her, and the other employees in the department also did the same. According to Cheryl, they discriminated her because they did not want any black person working in Hoosiers forest department. The dilemma in this case study is the issue of racism.

The Eastern New Mexico Medical Center (ENMMC), faced the issue of gender discrimination when managing its diverse workforce. The problem in the hospital was that Dr Khalsa discriminated against the female staffs in the health center. There was various evidence presented to Susan Finn, the director of Human Resource in this medical center. We see one of the female staffs, Pat Chevas complaining that one day Dr Khalsa referred her as lazy and dirty. We can also see Dr Khalsa telling Betty Cabeza de Baca that she is very stupid; she cannot be able to attend a patient, and all she thinks about is taking siestas. Sandra Newhouse also confirmed that Dr, Khalsa belittled female staffs’ in front of the patients. Sometimes, he even breached the confidentiality of female patients. We can also affirm that after being fed up with the behavior of Dr Khalsa, some female staffs began applying for other positions outside Radiology Oncology. This means that his behavior towards the female teams was terrible. However, the men in this health center were not complaining about Dr Khalsa; this means that he discriminated against the females only. The dilemma in this case study was the issue of gender discrimination.

  1. Factors that make diversity management challenging.

Various factors make diversity management challenging; the first factor is acceptance and respect; in the workplace, conflicts arise when there is lack of recognition of cultural diversity and believes among the workers. In the case of Hoosiers Forest department, it was difficult to manage the workers because some people failed to appreciate and respect the cultural diversities and beliefs. The new supervisor and the colleagues didn’t appreciate Cheryl culture and her skin color.  This made it challenging to manage diversity in the organization. The other factor is accommodation of beliefs; the difference in political, spiritual and cultural beliefs can pose a severe challenge in managing diversity (Von, 2002). When many people are working together, they are supposed to keep their personal and ethical beliefs independent of their work responsibilities and duties. Failure to do this, it becomes difficult to manage diversity. In the case of The Eastern New Mexico Medical Center (ENMMC), Dr Khalsa had retained his ethical and personal beliefs about certain cultures even in the workplace. There is an instance we see him mocking Betty daughter by telling her that she would never be tall, but she will be a short little Mexican. This showed that Dr Khalsa had an issue with the Mexicans, and he is not supposed to bring this in the workplace. The other factor that makes diversity management challenging is gender equality. Gender discrimination in the workplace makes it is difficult to manage diversity. Gender discrimination implies a situation where one favors a particular gender and undermine others. Organizations need to avoid gender discrimination and offer equal chances to all the workers. From the Eastern New Mexico Medical Center (ENMMC) case study, we can see that Dr Khalsa discriminated against the females this demoralized them and reduced their productivity. The other factor is language and communication; the language used when communicating in any organization is very important. Inappropriate language and communication are threats to managing diversity (Von, 2002). In the case of Hoosier national forest, Cheryl could not be able to stay anymore because of the institutional racism and falsehoods spoken against her by the supervisor and various colleagues who did not like the black people. In the Eastern New Mexico Medical Center (ENMMC), the female employees couldn’t be able to work because of how Dr Khalsa communicated to them. Excellent language and communication are crucial factors in an organization. If proper language and communication lack in an organization, the management face difficulties in managing diversity.

  1. How I would assess the effectiveness of diversity management in the organizations in the cases.

The following are ways in which I would assess the effectiveness of diversity management in the organization in the cases. Workforce composition; I would first measure the increase in staff for either two to three years. For example, in the Eastern New Mexico Medical Center (ENMMC), I would check the women in the management. Are more women working in this organization? If they are few, I would automatically know that diversity management is not active. If I find more women, I will understand that management diversity strategies are working. In the Hoosier national forest, I would check the total racial, ethnic minorities that have been promoted in the management. If they are less, I would automatically know that there is an issue of diversity management. More people imply better diversity management. Staff turnover and retention; this is the other factor that I would determine when finding of diversity management issues. In this case, interviews are carried out to determine whether there is any unfair practice in the organization (Choi, 2008). In the case of Hoosier national forest, I would compare the figures between ethnic minority staff and the white staff. In the Eastern New Mexico Medical Center (ENMMC), I would compare the male and female crews at the same grades in the organization. Track complaints of harassment; this is the other method in which I would utilize when assessing the diversity of the workforce. Recording of harassment cases acts as a metric for measuring culture and the general health of an organization. In the two cases, I would introduce a new harassment policy; this will increase the initial complaints but track over a two to four-year period. In a healthy and positive culture, this should start to tail off. Additionally, the discipline and grievance cases should be tracked for the same purpose. Customer feedback; this is the other way in which I would assess the effectiveness of diversity management. In the two cases, various clients are being served by the management.  Diversity policies mainly extend to the people being served. If management diversity is not working, the customers will automatically complain. The customer feedbacks are, therefore, a metric that would be effective in assessing diversity management in the two cases.

  1. Suggestions on how to overcome the dilemmas presented in the two cases and a diversity management model to improve the management of a diverse workforce.

Suggestions to overcome the dilemma.

There are various suggestions I have that can help to overcome the dilemmas presented in the two cases. The first suggestion is considering culture and interpersonal differences. The management in the two organizations should contemplate the differing ethnic, cultural and gender backgrounds of their employees to maximize collaboration among the employees. The other strategy is teaching the value of diversity among the employees. The management should also explain the need for diversity among the employees so that to avoid any frictions among the employees. The other strategy is the promotion of intercultural competence; this is the ability to adapt to other people cultural norms and expectations. To succeed in managing diversity, the management needs to adopt this strategy.

The model to improve the diversity of the workforce.

The following is a model that I have created to enhance workforce diversity.

  1. Empowering and educating the management.

It is not worth to assume that the management understands the importance of work Diversity. There is a need to teach them so that they can become aware of how to support their employees and foster a diverse workforce. The first step in the model is looking up at how the offices are set.

  1. Building a diversity-friendly workforce.

This is the second step in my model; this step involves creating new policies in the organization and implementing the current ones (Von, 2002). For example; it is against the rules of the company to discriminate any individual on the bases of cultural, religious or political background. And violation of this rule would lead to dismissal from the workplace. Another rule beis that people who may be caught using inappropriate language and communication styles in the workplace will be expelled for five months. Failure, to change they will lose the job.

  • Communicating clearly and creating employee-led task forces.

Making the policies only is not enough; there is a need to communicate clearly and ensure that the strategies are effective. The workers in the organization should come to the management freely without fears of intimidation after reporting the discrimination cases. The administration should also have clear communication with the workforce to ensure that there are no assumptions.

  1. Offering diverse opportunities for employee engagement.

This is the fourth step in my model; this step involves creating exposure to all the workers in the organization.  This creates an opportunity for all the workers to participate in understanding each other better.

  1. Creating a mentorship program.

This is the fifth step in my model; it involves creating mentorship programs to enhance advancement among all the employees in an organization. These programs provide continued education necessary for ensuring that diversity among the workforce is promoted.

  1. Continued evaluation

This is the last step in my model; it involves regular monitoring to ensure that the employees always promote diversity management in the workplace.



Von Bergen, C. W., Soper, B., & Foster, T. (2002). Unintended negative effects of diversity            management. Public personnel management31(2), 239-251.

Choi, S. (2008). Diversity in the US federal government: Diversity management and employee     turnover in federal agencies. Journal of Public Administration Research and    Theory19(3), 603-630.