One of the essential needs in the management of employees is to understand what motivates them. The knowledge of motivation helps managers to know why the performance of employees is sometimes low or high in some people and not others. Also, with information about motivation, managers can increase production by presenting the employees with what they need. Researchers have carried out studies to understand employees, and one of them is the factors, which influenced them to choose the profession. Were the employees forced to take the career or they made independent decisions? That is the guiding question in most of the researches to understand the employees. The sustaining force in particular tasks depends on what motivated the employee into that profession.
What motivates young people to choose particular careers? The topic of career choice is not new and will continue because of the complexity involved in making a decision. Young people are new to the professions, and in most cases, they do not know why one should select one course to study and not the other one. Some focus on the income of the job at the end of the course while others do not mind being in any profession (Ahmed, Sharif, & Ahmad, 2017, 13). There are both motivating factors and forces which young people consider when they are making decisions about the future profession. Career choice is, therefore, a dependent decision where the environment plays a role. There are different theories of career motivation, which researchers formulate to understand the secret behind career choice. Some of the methods include self-concept and sex-type rating (Rule, Kahonde & Lorenzo, 2015, 493). However, most of such approaches focus on one element of motivation or force behind career choice. Most of them focus on internal drives, personal values, and talents. Do the external environment like parents, peers and the media affect the choice of profession? The area is yet to have sufficient evidence on how the external environment plays a role in career choice.
This study aims to add to the current research on factors and theories explaining career choice by focusing on the external and internal factors, which affects career choice. To study the issues, the researcher investigates the factors affecting young people to join printing as a preferred profession using Hong Kong printing industry. The study found that the elements, which influenced young people to join the printing profession in Hong Kong, ranged from internal to external and some regrets to have made a wrong decision on a career. The listed factors include parents, media, peer groups, income, exposure and freedom in the printing job. The study concludes that young people do not make independent decisions into printing and other professions, but the external environment plays a significant role. A descriptive survey was carried out using questionnaires, which the researcher administered on 248 randomly selected young people from five different printing companies.
Management in the printing industry will benefit from the results of the research through the addition of knowledge on the motivating factor of their workers. The managers will use such information to adjust various issues such as workers remunerations, which will motivate the workforce.
Literature review section analyzes the current information on the factors, which impacts young people to make professional decisions. The review will discuss both internal and external factors, which affects career choice about the current studies. On specific, the analysis will identify the factors which impact young people in Hong Kong to choose the printing profession. The factors help to understand that decision on careers is not straight forward, but there are forces within and outside environment that influence young people to choose to print as their plan.
Meddour, Abdo, Majid, Auf & Aman (2016, 16), contends that career choice is dependent on factors which go beyond the individual’s wishes. Most young people have desires to where they want to spend their life like in urban or rural and what they want to do in the future. Although their interests appear to be personal, the family and environment play a role in shaping them (Meddour et al., 2016, 19). The family has a more significant influence, which it also derives from the external environments. There is a relationship between internal environments like individual interests and the external environment like the parents which makes profession decision a complex process of analyzing those factors. A career job is the final product of the process and has some elements, which attracts young people to settle on one and not the other like income and opportunity to develop (Saleem, Mian, Saleem, & Rao, 2014, 56). Also, the environmental impacts some force which makes a person to pick on one career and not the other like the societal job rank, media, and peer groups.
One of the personal factors that influence young people’s decision on career choice is self-efficacy. Self-efficacy affects one’s decisions, insights, and inspirations. According to Meddour et al. (2016, 10), those people whose self-efficacy is high for a specific career will do all their best to pursue it regardless of the other external factors. Such people will invest all their time, resources and energies to achieve the career objective (Eun, Sohn, & Lee, 2013, 101). On the other hand, those people with low self-efficacy tend to keep off from any factor, which may contribute towards specific goals that they feel are not capable of attaining(Meddour et al., 2016, 15). Such young people will not listen to parents or peers who encourage careers and will not invest their resources on such objectives. Conviction on self-efficacy balances all the variables, which affects career choice. Parents, peers and the media, for example, do not go before the board of institutions to select a career for young people. They try to show the young how able they are on a particular skill to build their self-efficacy. The higher the efficacy, the higher the chance a young person is likely to choose a specific profession.
According to Kazi, & Akhlaq (2017, 22), career choice is a dilemma that challenges many people. Several interconnected factors come into play when students are making decisions regarding their profession, making the process to be complicated. Kazi, & Akhlaq (2017, 31), outlines the factors which influence students’ choice on a career as academic achievements, talents, skills, parents, the media and peers. Most of the factors connect each other, and therefore people may land into careers, which they did not want but came because of the interplay and balance. Parents are the major influence on one's career because they can mold an individual’s efficacy from when they are young (Kazi, & Akhlaq, 2017, 29). Most of the parents were unable to achieve some goals or desires when they were young and therefore, use their children to attain them (Ginevra, Nota & Ferrari, 2015, 5). Also, they may develop needs from the country needs such as insufficient physicians, engineers or other specialists. The influence of parents on the career choice of young people, as a result, represents other many factors from the environment.
Kazi, & Akhlaq (2017, 23), emphasizes the influence of parents on their children’s career by pointing out that a good relationship in a family can make a child to copy profession of either the mother or the father. Those children originating from peaceful and caring families in most cases assume parents characters to make them happy. The parents dictate what they expect, and the children do not question. Such families instruct young to take a career without discussion or questioning (Kazi, & Akhlaq, 2017, 28). Also, the young people in such situations may decide by themselves to follow parents’ profession as a way of appreciating their parenting. A country acts as a parent in determining the career of its young people. They can coerce or use other attractive ways to direct people towards certain professions. Similar to parents, they also have needs for skilled people to work in various fields. Kazi & Akhlaq (2017, 28) in their analysis concludes that the less developed countries influence the young towards their needs. They will allocate scholarship or lower the school fees for specific programs to attract many young people. Influences from the parents and the courtly itself, which represents the society, are hard to avoid (Kazi & Akhlaq, 2017, 22).
Atta, Akhter, Shujja & Shujaat, (2013, 5) bases their argument about carrier choice on the Cognitive Information Process theory (CIP) to point out that people balance several factors before settling on a profession. According to CIP, the decision on any career is dependent on the effectiveness of information processing which includes professional information and self-knowledge (Sarwar, & A
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