Groupthink

Group thinking often occurs when individuals become engrained in their thinking. The officials of government are often inclined to thinking and decision making that may not be objective. On the issue between the two countries, groupthink can be detrimental and influential to the decision taken by either president. There is a need to break the grip of groupthink to prevent and reduce the chances of war erupting between the two nations. For instance, Philips in its quest to regain market and increase profitability engaged services of a consultant to help them during their transition from high tech electronics company to a technology company that ventures in the manufacture of lifestyle products.

The individual thoughts that are responsible for helping people make rational decisions are often suppressed when groupthink is available. Additionally, innovative ideas are also a casualty, and it is because of these reasons that Xi Jinping will declare war on India. Similarly, the groupthink on the Indians officials will also have an impact in aggravating the already delicate situation because they ought to have a meeting where they can discuss positive and peaceful ways of solving the tension between the two countries. However, they seem confused and afraid which implies that they can’t make any firm decision in their current state of fear. As a result, both countries fail to see and respond to the developing scenarios and adopt friendly ways of mitigating potential conflict that will not only hurt the economy but make a considerable setback to the ogress that has been achieved by the countries. Stressful internal or external conditions and previous failures emerging from deviation from the constitutional way of handling disputes is another reason that will make groupthink decision to make war erupt.

The extent of groupthink severity is also dependent on the country’s structure of the leadership. Consequently, where there is similar structure, the possibility of being subjected to groupthink is almost impossible as compared to that country where the workforce has embraced multiculturalism, and there is also a balance between men and women. Despite being internationally acknowledged that gender equality and women empowerment are significant to development objectives, India is one of the nations that are performing poorly towards bridging that gap, and its current ranking is position 148 is very low. Ironically, some small countries from the Asian countries are performing better than India like the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The representation is low in both absolute numbers as well as globally. In the cabinet that was formed in 2014 after the general elections, only five women were included in the list of ministers from a total of 27. Similarly, China is not performing well in terms of women representation and still has a long way to go. According to Audrey Jiajia LI, the conspicuous absence of women in top national diction making organs implies that China still has a lot to do in solving the imbalance .with this kind of setting on the officials, groupthink is inevitable and will undoubtedly lead the country to war with China.

Moreover, there is a lack of complete analysis because the of the majority opinion that is often adopted and those with contrary opinions forced to tore the line. Consequently, critical aspects of the underlying situations are not questioned and deliberated upon like what is the main reason for China to feel insecure by the growth of India and what the motive towards the war is. How can it be resolved and the two nations utilize the prowess they have in different fields to enhance their bilateral connections for a symbiotic mode of existence rather than being envious to the extent of escalation a possibility of war between the two nations. Sobriety in discussion of such vital issues is required something that cannot exist together with groupthink.for instance the ill-fated bay of Pigs invasion, the water break-in and eventual cover-up and the ignoring of the design flaws in the space shuttles which resulted to Challenger disaster is one of the example effects on groupthink that is not tamed. Clearly, there was ignorance of clear indicators that all was not well beginning from the design by the small, isolated group that was tasked with the decision making process.

Self-esteem is essential in day’s operations, and it is responsible for how human beings behave. People experience a definite feeling of high esteem when they have confidence and when other people around them also attach value to them. However, negative esteem is experienced when people believe that others are not complete and lack something which causes people around them not to feel worthy. Diminishing low-esteem among the leaders will create conflict among the two nations. Our self-esteem is determined by various factors including how well we view our own performance and experiences and how satisfied in multiple areas we are. Both Indian and Chinese leaders should have high self-esteem to avoid erupting war. Self-esteem is a character that builds over time with a section of people having a relatively high esteem while others experience a low esteem.

Various studies have been conducted to assess peoples esteem in the world. When the same is applied Xi Jinxing’s self-esteem is diminishing, and it will impact negatively on his government which may make huge mistakes in decision making that may result in war with India. Self-worth is closely related to how one is cultured, and some people place more emphases on generating high self-esteem than others, and that exerts pressure on people making them feel and report more positively about themselves. That is the source of much problems many experiences and the desire to portray a self-positivity like that showed by Xi Jinping that may cause tension when not tamed accordingly. According to research, people living in eastern cultures have low self-esteem compared to those that leave in western cultures. These variations depict different cultural priorities and pressures.

How social situation creates conflict

When human beings are taught to cooperate well with one another, and when they conduct their affairs morally, social fairness and other human factors favor cooperation. Competition often results in social dilemma and the dilemma forms patterns whereby even when people want to conduct themselves in a good way, the impending situation rewards those that are selfish. Consequently, this is the situation between the two nations since their economies are continually growing and chine is concerned by the growth of the Indian economy which may cause conflict. Social dilemma happens when members of group, culture or society are in a potential battle over the use of shared resources. Various issues between the two countries have had an impact on social situations between them.

Border issue

The primary problem between the two nations is the border question which is a historical issue. The border problem is traced back to the disputed status of McMahon that defines the border between India and China. India acknowledges this agreement that shows its territorial claim while chine disputed the validity of the document with a request that it was not part of Simla convention that created the boundary and so it cannot accept the border formed by it.on the other hand, India has laid claims on 43,180 squares kilometers of Jammu and Kashmir which is currently occupied by China including the 5180 square kilometers cede to China by Pakistan under another agreement formed in 1963 called China-Pakistan boundary. China also has some claims on Indian land of about 90,000 square kilometers. The dispute has been outstanding for long and there is no remarkable progress that has been made in solving the standoff between two sides due to the importance of Aksai Chin to China because it is the main link between Tibet and Xinjiang province of China and Arunachal Pradesh to India and that is essential to stability of the northern part of India. The relationship between India and China has remained hostile for several decades after 1962. China claimed substantial territorial concessions in a densely populated area of Arunachal Pradesh with the main argument that sixth Dalai Lama was born there. China also seeks a return of the land on religious grounds, but India demands a return of sacred Mount Kailash Manasarovar in Tibet as it is considered a place that has significance in Hindu culture. However, there was some improvement from both countries following the border agreements that occurred in 1993 and 1996, and it is after those agreements that they resorted to having bilateral relations and that the border issues should not deprive them of the benefits that emanate from such arrangements. Additionally, both nations have implemented confidence-building measures along the borders which include a reduction in the number of military presence, and the frequent meeting between commanders of local military. There was an additional initiative made in 2003 when both countries when the two countries jointly appointed representatives to address the issue and the representatives have been very busy holding meetings with an attempt to solve them, but there is no breakthrough on the matter.

However, the main reason is that constant disputes provide China with strategic leverage that helps it keep India unclear about its intentions and also make it nervous about China’s abilities. It is also aimed at shaping India behavior on the issues that are of great importance to China. Due to the security threats and national interests, neither India nor China is willing to compromise its position or give away their claims concerning the territory in dispute. The Indian government is neither a bettor nor instigator of political cause to tibenians implying that though Indians have recognized Tibet as part of China publicly, the disputed region is not a significant issue in China India relations. Nonetheless, chin has been more aggressive on the border issue and recently in 2007, an Indian official was denied Chinese visa on the grounds that he lives on Arunachal Pradesh a disputed portion in India that is claimed by China. Also, in March 2009, China also attempted to block a loan to India from the Asian development because the credit was to be used to develop Arunachal Pradesh that has consistently been claimed by China. The aggressive policies employed by China have caused a set back on the earlier efforts of Sino-India talks, and that is creating tension that may cause war among the two nations.

On the other hand, Arunachal Pradesh is regarded as an integral portion of Indian union that was legally found and with the consent of the inhabitants in 1987. Despite a claim by Chinese foreign minister in 2007 that the presence of presence of Indians will not prevent China from claiming the land, it seems unlikely that India will relinquish the property to China. The self-esteem of the leaders is playing a huge role in the standoff because all leaders from the two nations have a high self-esteem causing them to be more aggressive in their quest to reclaim what they believe belongs to them. There is a high possibility of war breaking up between China and India unless the aggression is checked

Water issues between China and India

Water is one of the problems causing social dilemma between the two nations since it is considered as a precious commodity and essential for human existence. That is why the position of water is inseparable from power.

Moreover, the preciousness and possession of water in geographical locations makes it a strategic asset and its importance cannot be over-estimated. In this scenario, water can become a significant source of either cooperation or contention in the contemporary word. In the case of China and India, the issue of water is consistently growing to become an issue of concern between the two. According to researchers, they argue that aspect of water is going to form a significant source of dispute between the countries in the future compared to what is experienced currently. China has plans of making huge dams that will divert all the waters that are related to India, a decision that has not been received warmly by the Indians .the two nations ought to discuss how to share this vital commodity and the benefits that accrue to having rivers.

However, India will suffer because China possesses a strategic advantage over the rivers and will use that to counterbalance India in many other issues of dispute between the two countries. The strategic position of China coupled integrated with a differing view on the Line of Actual Control, and the claim China has launched on territories that are part of India makes the situation even harder to resolve. China has also claimed that there is no agreement available between them and Tibet concerning the waters. Because Indian are strategically disadvantaged, they will be vulnerable in case China makes right their threats of doing huge storage projects in China. However, given the ever deteriorating situation between the two countries, it is expected that China will not play any responsible role given the position they occupy geographically.

Furthermore, substantial water projects in China will have not only an impact on India but also Bangladesh and the issue is even worsened because no international law provides direction on how territorial waters that are shared should be administered. There have been attempts between the two countries in sharing data concerning hydrological data concerning flooding but the Chinese have been frustrating that arrangement by being inconsistent in the information they provide. In handling such a delicate matter, groupthinking should be avoided at all costs.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that the border dispute that has been unresolved for a long time between the two nations and particularly China’s claim on the Arunachal Pradesh which is the sources of river Brahmaputra forms the basis for meaningful cooperation concerning the water issue. It can also be said that the border dispute and the water issue is between the two counties. China is likely to use the water in the future to exert pressure on India to solve the border dispute problem in favor of China. Consequently, water will be a big issue besides that border and will significantly determine the mode of association between the two nations. Additionally, rivers emanating from China to India will be a significant catalyst to cooperation or conflict

 
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