Hand Hygiene

Article Title: An educational intervention to improve hand hygiene compliance in Vietnam

Description of the main areas

Background/ introduction

The article has provided an introduction of the topic by explaining old studies on hand hygiene to trace the journey towards compliance. Through the previous researches, the authors have shown what is missing in the field which is information on compliance rate of hand hygiene in developing countries (Phan et al., 2018). The introduction provides a hypothesis that different models increase hand wash practice which in turn reduces healthcare-acquired infections. The introduction also provides the importance of the study that it offers a model which can help to control infections sustainably.


The article uses primary research conducted in various health care centers to compare compliance of hand hygiene between developing and developed countries. Also, the literature presents guidance from health regulatory body WHO to show what health care centers should be doing about hand hygiene. The review conclusively demonstrates how the WHO model to enable hand hygiene compliance is working and areas which need improvement and additional intervention. It locates the research topic in the current studies to fill the gap in the need for other models in developing countries.

Data analysis

Data analysis is through a descriptive method where the authors work out the mean, standard deviations frequencies and percentages of the information collected (Phan et al., 2018). However, the researchers also carry inferential analysis to show the relationship between education program, hand washes compliance and reduction in infections.


The article employs a quasi-experimental method which is carried out throughout six months in a hospital (Phan et al., 2018). The population used are healthcare workers from different departments enrolled to experiment. The research used a total of 7124 participants sampled purposefully to respond to questionnaires.

Evaluation of the evidence in support of the outcomes

The background information and literature review support the findings because they show how hand compliance is low which the results confirm. Also, the literature revealed that with the implementation of a model of agreement like that of WHO, the rate of hand compliance would increase and reduce infections (Phan et al., 2018). The outcomes of the research confirm the literature hypothesis since the compliance rate increased and infections reduced after the six months of the experiment (Phan et al., 2018). Data analysis method also supports the outcome in that it has been able to show the rate in figures allowing the researchers to conclude. The quasi-experimental method endorsed the result because it is through it that the researchers were able to collect data on the practices by healthcare workers. The sample also was effective in showing how hand compliance relates to education programs and infections. The four areas inform future research to consider such a method because of their effectiveness in bringing the desired results and informing the field of healthcare.

Protection of Human Subject

To ensure the protection of human who was objects of research to enroll in experiments, the researchers prepared ethical guidelines. However, they presented directions to the Institutional Ethical Review Committee of the hospital for approval (Phan et al., 2018). The approval ensured that the research was carried in a manner that no human would be hurt or health interfered. Cultural consideration was taken care of through informed consent to either choose to participate depending on how they view the research. Also, cultural attention was ensured through the use of a sample of different genders and ages between 22 and 54 years (Phan et al., 2018).

Strength and Limitation of the Study

The study is strong in using a large sample and different departments of the hospital to collect data. With such divergent information from various departments and patients, the reliability of the data is high. It shows that education model affects all departments of the hospital and hand wash compliance is needed in all departments. One limitation of the study is the use of very more female, 85.99 percent than men as subjects of the study (Phan et al., 2018). The sample affects the generalization of the data to say that infections reduced on all patients. There might be some factors in women which makes infections reduce with hand wash and not the same case with men.

How Evidence Informs Nursing Practice

The research results inform the nurses about the importance of hand wash in their practices. From the outcomes, it is evident that hand wash practice can reduce healthcare-acquired infections (Phan et al., 2018). The most famous area is in the delivery section where those nurses and midwives who practiced in hand wash were able to reduce infections on mothers. Also, the study informs the nurses that hand wash reduces resistance in drugs through prevention of related bacteria. The study impacts on nurses to adopt hand wash strategies to increase prevention of disease. It adds on evidence in disease prevention as one of the major areas which nurses aim (Mackinson et al., 2018).

The results also inform nursing practice on the need of a model which would encourage nurses to wash hands in their practice. Although nurses aim at reducing infections through various methods hand wash being one of them, there are few models which can ensure that there is compliance. The study provides a model which is cheap in preventing diseases (Mackinson et al., 2018).  The evidence that an education hand hygiene model can increase compliance of to hand wash impacts nurse practice to adopt it in their programs of development.





Mackinson, L. G., Corey, J., Kelly, V., O’Reilly, K. P., Stevens, J. P., Desanto-Madeya, S., … Foley, J. (2018). Nurse Project Consultant: Critical Care Nurses Move Beyond the Bedside to Affect Quality and Safety. Critical Care Nurse, 38(3), 54.

Phan, H. T., Tran, H. T. T., Tran, H. T. M., Dinh, A. P. P., Ngo, H. T., Theorell-Haglow, J., & Gordon, C. J. (2018). An educational intervention to improve hand hygiene compliance in Vietnam. BMC infectious diseases18(1), 116.