There is a remarkable difference in architecture in the Byzantine Empire and Islamic architecture. Different elements of their cultures influence the structure and design of the arts. The difference can be seen in a comparison between The Dome of the Rock and the Hagia Sophia. The influence that religious impacts on the architecture on the Islamic and Byzantine Empire is primarily evident in the designs on the interiors of the two structures. In the Dome of the Rock, a vast egg-shaped dome is seen. It is composed of a gold-colored material. The entire building takes the shape of an octagon with very detailed designs. Additionally, it focuses on repetition and repetition. Around the whole building designs and color schemes are repeated. The shapes and designed are majorly yellow, green, and blue. The dome is composed of tiles that line up to the top where a small rod sticks additional feet. On the other hand, the Hagia Sophia is characterized by a rounded dome, different from the egg-shape seen in the Dome of the Rock (Witcombe, 2013). From the background, you can see four towers each with gray colored points. When you look at the interior part of the building, you can see a lot of details. In the interior, numerous openings allow for natural lightings. Several arched openings and columns are seen in the interior. It looks as if it was built in multiple layers and each is growing wider and wider. And in most arches, they either have additional arches or are contained within the arches themselves.


Witcombe, C. (2013) Sacred Places: Dome of the Rock, Israel. Sacred Places: Dome of the Rock, Israel.  Retrieved from http://witcombe.sbc.edu/sacredplaces/domeofrock.html
















Response to Peer 1


It was nice reading your work. I agree with you that by looking at the two arts, you’ll notice several structural, architectural, and decorative differences. For instance, the Dome of the Rock takes the shape of a decorated octagon, but the Hagia Sophia has several domes in a square block. At the same time, it is true that the interiors of the two are different from each other. Generally, the paper was written in a manner that provides a logical flow of ideas, shows mastery of the required content, and good command of the language. Great work and I wish good luck.

Response to Peer 2


Thank you for the great paper. You wrote in a comprehensive and informative manner. Like you have mentioned, it is no doubt that the two arts have features. Based on my analysis, I agree with you that the Dome of the Rock has the structure of an octagon that arises from a large platform known as the Noble Enclosure. To add on top of your post, I have observed that the Dome of the Rock possess more geometric designs and shapes since they cannot have any living beings, but the Hagia Sophia is surrounded with mosaics of people. This paper was characterized by proper command of language, logical flow of ideas, and showed mastery of content. All the best!



Problem Set Questions

  1. Sunflowers with flowers 10 cm in diameter are crossed with a plant that has 20 cm flowers. The F1 plants have flowers 15 cm in diameter. In the F2 generation, four flowers are 10 cm in diameter, and 4 are 20 cm in diameter. Between these are five phenotypic classes with diameters intermediate to those at the extremes.
  2. a) Assuming that the alleles that contribute to flower diameter act additively, how many genes control flower size?

From the case, there are two extremes 10 cm diameter and a 22 cm diameter with five different intermediate diameters between 10 cm and 22 cm. Therefore, the number of total phenotypes here is seven. Assuming that the 10 cm flower possess all recessive alleles and each dominate allele adds some diameter to the flower, then the first intermediate would possess one dominant allele, the second with two, and the fifth with five. Therefore, the 22 cm flower possesses six dominant alleles. Because there are two allele codes for a single gene, there are three genes that code the diameters.

  1. b) How much does each additive allele contribute to flower diameter?

Each allele contributes 2.5 cm in diameter to the flower.

  1. c) What size flower makes up the largest phenotypic class?

The 20cm flower makes up the most massive phenotype

  1. Why are monozygotic twins who are reared apart so useful in the calculation of heritability?

Monozygotic twins share the whole of their genetic material. When brought up differently, they are subjected to different environmental conditions. When analyzing the heritability of height, a researcher can use the monozygotic twins brought up in different environments to determine how environmental factors contribute to the differences in their heights. They would not require genetic control for genetic differences because monozygotic twins share the whole of their identical genes. Therefore, if there is any difference in the height of the twins, it can be deduced that the difference is as a result of external environmental factors.

  1. If monozygotic twins show complete concordance for a trait, whether they are reared together or apart, what does this suggest about the heritability of the trait?

Monozygotic twins are genetically identical and if they are brought up in different environments but the concordance is complete, the heritability is considered to be close to 1.0. But if they were brought up together, the heritability would be much lower than if they are reared differently because of similar environmental conditions.

  1. What does the ob gene code for in mice? How does it work? Is this a gene found only in animals, or do humans have it also?

Ob gene encodes the weight that controls hormone Leptin produced in fat cells. When Leptin is released from fat cells, it moves through the blood to the brain where the hypothalamus cells carry surface receptors for leptin. Leptin controls body weight, reduces appetite and increase energy consumption. The gene is found in animals and humans as well.

  1. What is the importance of the comparison of traits between adopted and natural children in determining heritability?

The significance of comparing traits between the children adopted to the natural children to determine heritability portrays that heritability can be used to calculate the genes shared with related individuals and is indicated as a correlation coefficient or part of genes shared by the two relatives. In the process of comparing them, they would be able to establish the difference in natural and adopted children like temperament, personality traits, cognitive performance, and different behaviors.

Do you need high quality Custom Essay Writing Services?

Custom Essay writing Service