PLEASE READ FULL INSTRUCTIONS! 2 PAGES AND A REFERENCE PAGE. NO COVER OR ABSTRACT NEEDED. The quest to fulfill our needs drives most of our behaviors. An emotion is a subjective feeling that is accompanied by physical and behavioral changes. Some emotions can feel better than others and some are more intense than others. Some examples of emotions include sadness, passion, love, disgust, pride, and anger. Did you know the complexity of our emotions is what separates humans from animals? There are four major theories of emotions: James Lange theory Cannon-Bard theory Facial-feedback theory Schachter’s two factor theory Motivation is a set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior, usually toward a goal. There are three categories of motivational theories: biological, psychosocial, and biopsychosocial. Motivational Theories Biological Instinct theories: Behavior is motivated by genetic survival. Drive reduction theory: Motivated behavior occurs as a mean to reduce physiological imbalances and return to homeostasis (a balanced state). Arousal theory: Organisms seek an optimal level of performance that maximizes their performance. Psychosocial Incentive theory: Our goals motivate us. Biopsychosocial Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Lists five categories of motivated behaviors from basic to most complex. Maslow believed that we must progressively work through each level of need to reach a higher state of being. Self-actualization is the ultimate level where we reach our full potential. Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic Motivation can come from two places: outside and inside. Motivation that comes from the outside is called extrinsic motivation, and motivation that comes from the inside is intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic Intrinsic motivation fuels your interests and passions, and drives you to do the things that you really enjoy and allow you to grow as a person. Some examples of intrinsic motivation are: Getting your degree in something you love. Learning how to play the piano. Learning how to dance salsa. Extrinsic Extrinsic motivation is fueled by outer rewards or threats of punishment, like buying a new outfit because you want to look good to others, earning a material reward, or studying because you don’t want to fail, not because you enjoy learning the material. Lasting motivation only lasts when you feel it from inside (internally). To demonstrate your mastery of this competency, you should 1) Identify 3-4 key principles that govern human and animal behavior. 2) Apply these principles to your own life. (e.g. How can you see them in daily life?) 3) How do they enhance interactions between individuals and among societal groups?