Identification and Individuation

Identification and Individuation

Question 1

Through definition, identification means the process by which one gets to be recognized through their attributes, aspects or property which they later gain identity from. On the other hand, individuation means the process by which a person is distinguished from others in different aspects. An example of identification is where a person can describe herself as Sheila Adams who is a tall brown and works as a teacher in a local school. On the other hand, an example of individuation is whereby one can refer to the same girl as the tall girl while referring to her in between other short girls. Another difference between identification and individuation is that identification is a broad term while individuation is a specific term (Schecter, 2018). An example is in a sample size one may identify the sample used as 30 people while individuation goes to the specific person and the results they obtained from them as individuals.

Question 2

Offender profile is an investigative document that has details of an individual and the previous crimes that they have committed. One of the advantages of having the offender profile in written form than verbal is it is easy to preserve. The purpose of the profile is to show that a person is clean in criminal matters. Oral or verbal evidence cannot be reserved and is used there and then. However, the written document preservation is simple and straightforward. A second advantage of having a written criminal offender than the verbal one is that it can capture every detail (Jackson, & Bekerian,  2017). A written criminal profile is divided into different sections through which every detail is written down. This makes it easier to capture every detail about the person when filled in. However, with the verbal one, some details may be omitted because it is only communicated physically through word of mouth.

Question 3

Stalking can be defined as the actions of following or invading someone’s privacy against their consent to know more about them. College and university student are at an elevated risk of becoming victims of stalking due to different reasons. One of the reasons is that of the high use of social media and technology on the campuses. The rates are so high to the extent that one student may hack into their colleague’s accounts against their will which is illegal. A second reason why they might be at a high risk to become victims is that of the freedom of interaction in the universities and colleges (Dunn, 2018). There are no harsh restrictions where boys can visit the girl’s rooms of residence at any time. This may lead to the stalking the privacy of the girls for example while taking a bath which is illegal in most of the higher learning institutions.

Question 4

Sadistic behavior can be described as the actions whereby an individual gains pleasure, happiness or satisfaction by inflicting harm on other people or by watching other individuals suffer (Buckels, Jones, & Paulhus, 2013). One example that can describe sadistic behavior is that of rapists who rape women with an aim to satisfy their bodily desires. Here they feel like the right thing while inflicting pain and torture to others. A second example is that of the thugs who enjoy stealing and killing people like flies and feel like they have achieved. Such sadists make other people suffer, and if they fail to suffer, they become outraged inflicting more torture. A third example to describe sadism is that of bosses who mistreat their employees to feel respected. Some managers and supervisors go to the extent of physically abuse their employees to be feared, and this is what makes them feel happy psychologically.




Schecter, D. E. (2018). Identification and individuation. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic             Association16(1), 48-80.

Jackson, J. L., & Bekerian, D. A. (2017). Offender Profiling: Theory, research, and practice.       John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Dunn, J. L. (2018). Courting Disaster: Intimate Stalking, culture and criminal justice. Routledge.

Buckels, E. E., Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2013). Behavioral confirmation of everyday            sadism. Psychological science24(11), 2201-2209.