Internal validity

In the research method of the article, Effectiveness of an aspiration risk-reduction protocol by Metheny, Davis-Jackson and Stewart, one potential concern that could be raised about the study’s internal validity is the selection bias. The two groups quasi-experiment design that was used to select and compare the outcome of the usual care group and the ARRP group depicts evidence of biasness. Selection bias is a problem that occurs during pre-test where differences in groups exist leading to the interaction of independent variables making it responsible for the observed outcome (Padula et al., 2009). A threat to the internal validity of the study tend to compromise the confidence that there exists a relationship between independent and dependent variables.

To strengthen the study’s internal validity, the participants have to be self-selected into an experimental and comparison group. To strengthen the internal validity of this study, the researchers have to be keen on the multiple test options. Through this, the researchers will be wary of the results and confirm in they are indeed true. Secondly, the research should strive for consistency. Additionally, the researchers should reduce instrumentation threats by making an effort to achieve uniformity at each observation point (Padula, Hughes & Baumhover, 2009). Thirdly, random selection of the participants will help reduce the threat of internal validity. The two groups used in the quasi-experimental design will be chosen on a random basis to prevent selection bias. This could also reduce the threats of external validity, construct validity and conclusion validity.

The consequences of neglecting to consider the validity of research can lead to more loopholes and skew in the result of their research. Without proper validation of the result, the nurses can have false and biased results that can lead to harmful practices once the results have been published (Yuan et al., 2009). Notably, strong validity is needed in the development of evidence-based practice. If the nurse does not validate the results, safety interventions cannot be applied, and the results cannot be applied in real life.



Metheny, N. A., Davis-Jackson, J., & Stewart, B. J. (2010). Effectiveness of an aspiration risk-reduction protocol. Nursing Research, 59(1), 18–25.

Padula, C. A., Hughes, C., & Baumhover, L. (2009). Impact of a nurse-driven mobility protocol on functional decline in hospitalized older adults. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 24(4), 325–331.

Yuan, S., Chou, M., Hwu, L., Chang, Y., Hsu, W., & Kuo, H. (2009). An intervention program to promote health-related physical fitness in nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18(10), 1,404–1,411