What the disease is? What causes the disease? Risk factors? Etiology? Signs and symptoms?

Kyphoscoliosis is the deformity on the spine characterized by abdominal curvature of the vertebral column which can occur in two types of planes, sagittal and coronal. (Daley, 2001)Kyphoscoliosis can also is the as a combo of two thoracic deformities which commonly occur together. The first thoracic deformity is, kyphosis; posterior curvature of the spine, also referred to as humpback. The second thoracic deformity is scoliosis which, is defined as the curved spine to one side that typically appears either in C-shaped or S-shaped. The causes of kyphoscoliosisare;neuromuscular scoliosis which is a weakness in the control of the muscles or paralysis this is caused by diseases likemuscular dystrophy, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, or poliomyelitis. The second is idiopathic scoliosis whose cause is unknown; it is the most common cause of kyphoscoliosis which involves cases that appears in a previously straight spine. The third iscongenital scoliosis; this is the malformation of the spinal column. Also, the vertebrae fused, or the bones do not form properly.The way to recognize Kyphoscoliosisis through the cause, type, and severity of the curves; the more severe the curve, the more likely it will get worse. People with mild to moderate scoliosis will do well with brace treatments. When it is severe, it can bring dangerous effects primarily to the heart and lungs and can also cause death when the spine curvature is greater than 100 degrees.It mostly occurs at a young age ranging from childhood to teenage years andsometimes present from birth due to its genetic factors.Kyphoscoliosisis available mainly in young children who are passing through a growth spurt, and it rarely found in adults except if the condition started during childhood and not diagnosed or treated. If it develops in an adult, it is from a spine, and this usually occurs in patients who are 50 years old plus. However, there are many idiopathic occurrences of kyphoscoliosis where the exact cause is unknown, but it is suspected to be caused by genetic factors.The first sign of kyphoscoliosis is right heart and lung signs of failure.Other symptomsinclude cyanosis, distended neck veins, peripheral edema, and hepatomegaly(Joyce, 2008). Those patients with severe kyphoscoliosis have increased  HR, RR, and BP, digital clubbing, sputum production and cough, Gdynia, hypoxia, hypocapnia, and in development of pulmonary hypertension.

Current Diagnostic Studies (X-Rays), Current Treatment, And Prevention

The diagnoses of kyphoscoliosis are; physical examination, medical history, x-ray valuation, and curve measurement. The following are the x-ray diagnosis, first,the angle of the curvature; it is a measure of the shape of the spine in degrees which helps the doctor to determine what type of treatment is necessary.Second, location,meaning the curve of the spine may occur in the lower back area or upper back area or possibly in both areas. Third, angle, the lateral curvature degree is well showed by Cobb angle. Forth, direction; can bend to the spine right and left. The last, diagnostics is, shape, which has two sides; non-structural scoliosis,these arecurves which are either anS orC-shaped. Fifth, structural scoliosis,this is a curvature ofthe spine relatedto the vertebralrotation; it involves the twisting of the spine and appears in3D.The current treatmentmethod referred to as, treatment in floor therapy which depends on the cause, location, size, curve, and a growth spurt of the scoliosis patients(Goodman, 2015).  Observation is usually the first method of treatment; curvature less than 20 degrees is considered to be small, and it only requires observation to ensure that the curve does not progress, and growing children need observation checkups done in3-6 months intervals. The second method is the brace device that restricts the progressive bending of the spine. However, it is not meant to cure the disease; it is used to limit or prevent the curve from progressing and is mostly used for spine curvature of 25-30 degrees. The third treatment is the surgical treatment applied tospine curvature greater than40-50.However, it does not completely straighten the spin.Note, spine curvature greater than 100 degrees is life-threatening and requires the ICU.There is little that can be done to prevent kyphoscoliosis though early diagnosis and intervention would be beneficial (Bauknecht, 2012). The mainpreventions that help keep good health though does not prevent the progression ofkyphoscoliosis are physical therapy that provides flexibility and stronger muscles, exercises, and proper nutrition.

New Ways of Treatment of Kyphoscoliosis Patients

This new treatment method isthe RT role for respiratory care of kyphoscoliosis patients(Des Jardins, 2001). The first one is Oxygen therapy protocol; oxygen therapy is used to treathypoxemia that is commonly caused by atelectasis and pulmonary shunting; it is also used to decrease work of breathingand myocardial work. The second treatment is bronchopulmonary hygiene therapy and used to mobilize secretions such as CPT pepsuch as flutter Acappella, chest percussion, and suctioning.The third treatment is lungexpansion therapy protocol, and this is used to contract atelectasis suchas IPPB.


Kyphoscoliosis depends on the type, cause, and severity of the curves; the more severe the curve, the more likely it will get worse. People with mild to moderate scoliosis will do well with moderate and brace treatments.The low degree spine curvature mostly does not have many problems, but back pain can most likely occur when the person gets older. However, whenthe spine curvature is severe, this can cause dangerous effects, especially to the heart and lungs. Finally, kyphoscoliosis should always be monitored from the early signs and stages to avoid its risk factors.



Goodman, Catherine Cavallaro. Pathology: Implications for the Physical Therapist. Elsevier Saunders, 2015.

Des Jardins, Terry, and George G. Burton. Clinical Manifestations and Assessment of Respiratory Disease. Mosby, 2001.

Daley, R. “Morphine Hypersensitivity InKyphoscoliosis.” Heart, no. 2, 1945.

Joyce, Joseph A. Perianesthesia Patient Care for Uncommon Diseases E-book. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2008.

Bauknecht, K. “Scoliosis Dance Therapy: a Worth-While Addition to Conservative Scoliosis Treatments? A Pilot Study Evaluating the Effect of a DVD Led Instruction on the Wellbeing of Scoliosis Sufferers.” Scoliosis, no. S1, 2012.

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