Language is an essential technique for human communication. However, there are additionally different approaches to communicate without the utilization of language. At one point when requested to explain what is language? We generally think about the verbal and composed framework in which certain sounds and images meet up with a particular goal of passing information. A language might be mind-boggling structure but is remarkable to people.
Language is a fantastic mind-boggling framework, which is a ceaselessly subject to change. In spite of its complex nature and a great measure of variation, children gain proficiency with their first language rapidly and effectively. Analysts have offered a significant number of useful clarifications for this reality. Nervous system specialists are researching progressively about the structure of the human cerebrum consistently. However, the language structure remains complex.
Nobody recalls how they learned their first language. Figuring out how to talk and comprehend a language is a fantastic thing that occurs so rapidly. Kids learn language through hearing others around them speak. A child won’t figure out how to talk if parents fail to present a language to him. There are numerous theories on how kids learn a language this quick. One of those speculations is the cognitive theory.
This hypothesis expresses that the capacity to learn language rapidly is an element of cognitive procedures that are a piece of general conditioning. These abilities include acknowledgment, classification arrangement, and consideration perusing. Utilizing these abilities help children to gain proficiency in their local language. If you happen to observe a child chat with her mother aged between one and two years, you can see the crazy procedure of language development in children. And definitely, you will see a child seeking acknowledgment and consideration perusing.
Amid in the first year of child life, the child will hold common language patterns. He will express himself in single word articulations, and it’s obvious to see that he memorize words that advantage his day by day life. A child is aware, calling her mother will end up him getting the attention he needs and having the capacity to communicate what he needs with little words.
At the age of one year and three months, a child will understand common vocabularies and activity action words like hey, cut, and come. When a child happens sees her mother cutting something he will begin to say “cut.” In a case where her mother mention she is cooking the child will imitate her and mention the same words, additionally, a child will act or speak when he needs something by either looking at the object he wants or mentioning it. Pattern acknowledgment is normal to people. Human beings normally recognize patterns around them and help to understand the general Environment in the world. A child will demonstrate this when saying “more food, progressively, increasingly.”
A child will demonstrate that he understands when he needs to have something he says “give and toy.” At this point, he doesn’t know how to use conjunctions in statements and has only a couple of words that he utilizes consistently. At this age, he encounters vocabulary blast although the good thing is, he has the capability of learning new words every day.
A few months before a child hit two years you will begin to notice a lot of attention perusing. Attention perusing is a point where a child focuses on observing what the peers are doing and try to imitate them. It is a significant phase of societal linguists. you can see this action when a child stretches his hand out making a gesture that he needs something and he will always use gesture to show interest in something, and the mother should be on the lookout so she can respond to him.
Overgeneralization is common in children, this happens when children mention nouns or verbs wrongly and their mothers re-correct them. When a child officially hit two years old, he will develop the ability to incorporate adjectives and verbs in a single sentence when speaking; this is an essential stage of language development in a child, having the capability to use vocabulary he encounters too. Children at this age have large vocabularies of words and increases daily.
At almost three years a child is at the telegraphic stage and usually starts at a mid-second year when a child begins to use verbs, conjunctions, and prepositions and also develop the capability to construct complex sentences.
Children will use general cognitive skills to aid them to learn a language and communicate. A child will learn and understand that language helps him explains what he wants. He also learns language through watching and listening to his parents speaks, and his brain develops the ability to memorize words. A child will pick up a language pattern, focuses on what his parents do and replicate it as he will evaluate words and place them into groups. The skills represent a broad cognitive way of intelligence which is applied during communication and language development.
When explaining language development, there are three theoretical approaches to language development and acquisition, and they include Environmental theory, Nativist theory, and Social Interactionist theory. These theories are similar in a way, but they exhibit significant differences among them. Discussing each theory will help to understand more about language development and acquisition in children.
It is the first theory of language development. The theory is also known as the behaviorist theory. B.F. Skinner invented it. This theory explains the idea of children learning language through operant conditioning which is a method of learning that involves rewarding and punishment of behaviors. Skinner proposed that, like all other human behaviors, parents can positively reinforce language behaviors or sounds, and hence, the child will progress to learn a language. For instance, if a kid clicks a sound that is similar to a noun, his mother will compliment him thus equipping the kid with motivation to progress with such actions.
Additionally to operant conditioning, some psychologist researchers consider that child intimation also helps to language development. Combination of imitation and conditioning helps the child to create a whole sentence when talking. Finally, this theory appears to be genuine because it provides observable and precise justification for language development.
The second theory of language acquisition is the Nativist theory. Noam Chomsky introduced this theory. Noam viewed that children cannot fully utilize language development without the presence of other human beings. He further explained that language learning is something that grows in the child’s brain. Noam held that every child is born with a (LAD) know as a language acquisition device in their brain. The LAD provides innate biological knowledge for children to obtain and develop language. LAD helps children to create complex statements without any behavioral influences. When explaining LAD, the Nativist theory tries to explain the subject of complex language learning that the environmentalist theory fails to explain. Noam theory challenged the behaviorist theory that language is like any other behavior in society. Noam hypothesized that human beings share mechanisms that help them to understand, create and use language which shows uniqueness from other animals. He further argued that animals that are kept and raised around humans could not talk and understand as human beings do. The capacity of language development is similar all over the whole world no matter the variation in culture and environment. A child will learn a language quickly at the same developmental stage no matter growing in a different culture.
Social Interactionist Theory
Social Interactionist is the third theory of language acquisition, and the theory emphasizes on the social interaction between behavioral and biological influences. This theory is split into two categories which include, information processing approach and social interaction approach. Information processing approach explains how children acquire and comprehend language by applying common behavioral knowledge. Social interaction theory explains that the cerebral part of the brain that regulates language development also is responsible for controlling the motor and cognitive skills in children. The theory also states that the social skills of a child and his communication background play a crucial part in language development.
In conclusion, although these three theories try to explain language development or acquisition by children, it easy to observe the similarities and differences, all the theories acknowledge that language development is essential to human growth. The nativist and social Interactionist theories outline that, natural or biological conditions form the basis to language development. While on the other part environmental theory solely explains that language development in children is a result of positive reinforcement provided by the parents. Unlike the Nativist theory that only depends on biological conditions for language development in children. Environmental theory and social Interactionist theory emphasizes on behavioral factors as an essential tool of language development such as positive reinforcement and experiences from other humans. Although the three theories try to elaborate the language development in children there not a single theory that explains the whole process but the combination of the three theories creates a compressive understanding of language development.