In the case McHugh v. Disney Cruise Lines, Anthony McHugh alleges discrimination at the workplace based on his age and sex. He is a former labor analyst who worked for Disney Cruise Lines at the Florida-headquartered subsidiary until his termination. He complains that a female supervisor at the firm made the environment hostile. The younger female manager allegedly used abusive words to refer to the individual. Besides, she denied McHugh access to privileges that other employees enjoy. The nature of this case presents a rare legal scenario in law practice given the gender of the employee and the supervisor.
The law shields all workers against discrimination based on their sex. Therefore, any person, male or female, who has endured biased acts, has the liberty to allege sex discrimination. In this case, the Federal law also protects older workers aged 40 years and above. Before arriving at a final opinion, it is vital to consider all the factual information presented. After that, the judge would determine whether the complaint is valid or not. Thus, if a review of the accusations proves the claims are correct, the judge would allow it to proceed. The reason for the decision is to use to discourage discrimination against the old in a work setting.
478 U.S. 675
U.S. Supreme Court
Bethel Sch. Dist. V. Fraser, 478 U.S. 675 (1986)
Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser
Argued March 3, 1986
Decided July 7, 1986
The case involves Mathew Fraser, a public high school student at Bethel High School. He gave a speech that sought to nominate a fellow student for an elective post at the institution. The audience of 600 students comprised a majority of 14-year olds. The exercise was part of a school-sponsored educational program in self-government. However, Fraser’s speech contained elaborate, graphic, and explicit sexual metaphors that elicited different reactions. The school’s administration considered the statements a violation of their disruptive conduct rule and suspended him.
Fraser’s father filed a suit in court, claiming a violation of Fraser’s First Amendment right to freedom of speech and seeking injunctive relief and damages under 42 U.S.C. § 1983. The court ruled that the school’s policy on disruptive behavior was unconstitutionally vague and overbroad. It violated respondent’s right to freedom of speech. Also, the removal of the respondent’s name from the graduation speaker’s list violated the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The decision was due to lack of the disciplinary rules mentioning removal as a possible sanction. Thus, the District Court awarded the respondent $278 in damages, $12,750 in litigation costs and attorney’s fees.
Criminal law attorneys can embrace the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning to automate some daily procedures and tasks. Automation in law practice can help create time for attorneys to fulfill more engaging duties such as advising clients, deal-making and court appearances. One can use artificial intelligence to carry out tasks such as reviewing documents and legal research. Another significant function that automation can help with is conducting due diligence and ensuring the accuracy of the collected data.
While automation offers advantages such as faster processing of legal material and high accuracy levels, it cannot fulfill some roles. For instance, artificial intelligence can help in reviewing contracts, identifying risks and possible outcomes of some scenarios. However, it cannot negotiate deals with prospective clients. Such a role requires an attorney’s abilities to interact and deliberate on issues with other parties.