Microenvironmental control of glucose metabolism in tumors by regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase

Microenvironmental control of glucose metabolism in tumors by regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase

Answer the following discussion questions, referring to the attached publication. Make sure that your answers are complete, well developed and well reasoned. 1. Oncogenesis was studied by a Nobel Prize winner by the name of Otto Heinrich Warburg. He postulated that cancer was caused by what we describe as the Warburg Effect. Today we know that cancer is primarily caused by genetic modifications. However, the Warburg Effect is not a cause but a symptom of cancer. Answer the following three questions concerning this effect: a). Describe completely the Warburg Effect. b). Postulate two reasons, using basic knowledge of glycolysis, that the Warburg Effect is present in Oncogenesis. c). Propose how and explain, using the Warburg Effect, can one possible detect early formation of cancer. 2. According to the review article, Cancer cells modify metabolism by changing a specific enzyme complex, inhibiting transition to the citric acid cycle. a). Name and Describe this enzyme. Give a detailed explanation of its mechanism of operation (found in the textbook). b). How does cancer modify the enzyme? Describe this mechanism. c). Name and describe 2 reasons that the article gives as to why the cell makes this modification. 3. There are some that hypothesize that high level of prolonged sugar consumption can lead to certain types of cancers. Do you agree with this hypothesis? Defend a pro or con position by using information found within the article to make your case. There is no right on wrong answer; however you will be judged on your logical development and your use of information found within the article and/or your textbook. 4. Describe, using 50 to 100 words, the conclusion of the article.