Topic 2: Health Assessment of the Toddler, Preschool, and School-Aged Child
The needs of the pediatric patient differ depending on age, as do the stages of development and the expected assessment findings for each stage. In a 500-750-word paper, examine the needs of a school-aged child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old and discuss the following:
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
Assessment is a significant component in the nursing practice in that it is required for planning and providing family and patient-centered care. However, when conducting the physical examination for children, it is important to consider the different techniques that are age appropriate. First, school-aged children tend to feel mature, but in the health care setting, it is significant to consider whether they want their parents around. A 5 years old child would want the parent around, but a 12 years old might decide that having the parent around is a limitation. The nurses can ask for the preference of the child. School going children also become conscious about their bodies, and thus, privacy becomes an [cmppp_restricted]issue to them (Drutz, 2008). It is thus important to have them wear a gown and some privacy to change into the gown. The head to toe method should be employed, and each step explained in an age-specific language. However, the child should also be allowed to provide information about their activities, diet and health.
Trevor is a 7 years old boy. For a child this age, he has the ability to use language, and his imagination and memory is heightened. Children this age also develop a sense of accomplishment and pride and portray this by taking pride in social activities, school work and sports. Trevor takes pride in social activities more so in video games. He never feels inferior and gets along well with other people. He can also understand the relationship between the future and the past and can express this relationship (Morin, 2019). The sense of morality of the child is based on personal relationships. He accepts the rules of the parents with the belief that this acceptance is significant for a positive relationship with them.
Based on Piaget theory of development, Trevor is in the preoperational stage of development. At this age, children are able to use language, imagination, as well as memory. They can easily express and understand the relationship between future and past events (Lourenço, 2016). When conducting a developmental assessment for Trevor, the first step would be to ask the parent about his overall physical and mental abilities. This is to identify if there are any lost abilities. The second step is to explain the assessment by the use of language and imagination. At his age, Trevor can use language and understand. When explaining, I would use imagination to create events that match the assessment process for the child to understand the significance of the assessment. The head to toe method should be employed to assess the physical aspects such as hearing and vision. A major strategy to gain cooperation is to give ownership in the process. This can be done by offering questions such as ‘what do you want to do next? The child needs to feel proud of the process and use their imagination to feel in control. To gain potential findings from the assessment, it is important to allow the child to air his historical view of his abilities. A 7 years old understand the relationship between future and past and with their ability to use language can be able to relay how they feel and what they want to feel in future (Bellman, Byrne & Sege, 2013). This can be used to assess their imagination and memory capabilities.
Bellman, M., Byrne, O., & Sege, R. (2013). Developmental assessment of children. Bmj, 346, e8687.
Drutz, J. E. (2008). The pediatric physical examination: General principles and standard measurements. Dosegljivo na: http://www. uptodate. com/contents/the-pediatric-physical–examination-heent, 2-150.
Lourenço, O. M. (2016). Developmental stages, Piagetian stages in particular: A critical review. New Ideas in Psychology, 40, 123-137.
Morin, A. (2019). The Developmental Milestones You Can Expect From Your 7-Year-Old. Retrieved from https://www.verywellfamily.com/7-year-old-developmental-milestones-620704 [/cmppp_restricted]