Part 4 Assignment- Type One Diabetes


For the human body to function correctly, it needs insulin hormone to allow glucose to get into cells to produce energy. Factors that cause type 1 diabetes in the collection includes genetics and also viruses. Although the diseases are believed to appear during childhood or the adolescent’s stage it can also develop in the adult stage. Research has been done concerning the epidemic, but to date, there is no medicine to treat the disease hence making the conditions to have no cure. When addressing a patient suffering from type 1 diabetes treatment focuses on managing the level of the blood sugar that has the insulin, diet and the lifestyle as well to prevent more complications. For the case of the 13-year-old adolescent girl who is suffering from the type 1 diabetes diseases, through the lab test and the research will be able to tell the possible causes of the disease, the symptoms of the disease and the ways on how to treat the conditions. I will advise the mother and the girl on the possible way on how to prevent the high risks of the disease of Juvenile diabetes.

Pathophysiology of Disease

Juvenile diabetes is known to be the chronic autoimmune disorder which mostly occurs due to the ancestral genes, and the factors that surround us may precipitate the disease. In the susceptible human being, the immune system is generated for the development of an autoimmune reaction against the altered pancreatic beta antigens or even the molecules that are in the beta cells which resemble protein viral. From the recent research done, it shows that around 85% of the patients who have type 1 diabetes they have to circulate islet chamber antibodies where the majority of those patients have measurable anti-insulin antibodies. Many antibodies cells of the patients are measured against glutamic acid decarboxylase which is within the pancreatic beta cells 1( Kawamori et al.,2019). Different scenarios of developing of the type 1 diabetes have been put forth. First, within one model, the surrounding generate induces islet autoimmunity and beta-cell following the individual genetic which leads to stages of prediabetic and clinic onset of the type 1 diabetes. Second,in the scenarios where there has been proposed on the account for wide variations in time of initiation of autoimmunity and clinic onset of type 1 diabetes, here the interaction between factors of genetic and those of surroundings will lead to infections which contribute to fluctuations in the beta-cell mass observed for the onsetting of the type one diabetes disease. Third, Juvenile diabetes can become the disease of relapsing-remitting but in this case; it will depend on the cyclical disruption and also the reinstatement of the stability between the effectors and regulatory of the cells of type 1 diabetes. Finally, the fertile field of assumption postulates the survival of the duration of the window that follows infections in the viral at the time when individual face risk while developing the autoimmunity.

However,after taking the girl in the laboratory to test the disease of type 1 diabetes, some of the abnormal tests I expect to see in the text includes the level of glucose in blood to be high ,lack of balance in  electrolytes in the  state of diabetic having  degree of  dehydration that affects the functioning of kidneys. Further confirmation that the patient was sick will be the physical symptoms that patients have such as the feeling thirsty all the time, urinating frequent, wetting the bed which is not reasonable to an adult or to the person who has not been used to wet the bed. Other symptoms are changing moods, extreme hunger and feeling fatigue and weakness and oozing of weight. Those are among the physical symptoms I noticed with the patients. Although to date there have been no specific causes of the disease, the predicted reason for the illness is said to be through the genetics and the exposure t viruses and also other surrounding factors.

Implications for Self-Care

Considering the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs that include: physiology, safety, love and belongings, esteem and self-actualisation in the hierarchy level. I suggest that patients suffering from the type 1 diabetes disease should be treated with a lot of love, and to the mother who is taking care of her should not discriminate her daughter, because the virus cannot permanently be cured. Instead, she should treat her with a lot of love, giving her the medicine given to her by the doctor, as well as ensuring that she follow what the doctor advised them to do. When patients are shown love at their weak moment, they feel good hence making them feel confident before other people but when patients are mistreated their self-esteem goes down, therefore, making their situation to become worse than before. The patient should be given the basic things such as food which will contribute to her living long with the desires although it is not permanently treated. Failure to take care of the patients the may end up developing other diseases which could be prevented by showing them love, proving food for them and following all the rules that the doctor had instructed. Considering the application of Orem’s theory of self-care, which allow the nurses to assess, plan, implement as well as evaluating the care needs of the children in the nursing theory. I suggest that the nurses should be allowed to spend time with the patients, where they will advise them on how to cope with the life, how to do exercise and also the ways that the patient is supposed to do to improve the proper functioning of her body. Following the advice given to the patient by the nurse, the health of the patient will be better and hence make the patient fit in the society (Millman et al.,2016). The process of the disease of type 1 diabetes may affect the patients either positive and in a negative way. That is the reason patients suffering from this disease are advised to follow and do things as per the doctor’s requirements, take the medication as prescribed and also eat a balanced diet as recommended and as a result, they will be able to reduce the high risks of the type 1 diabetes diseases in their body.

                                     Patient Education Strategy

Considering that at this stage the patient is already suffering from the type 1 diabetes disease and since the disease cannot be cured despite that there are of some medicine to prevent it from growing big and bringing other problems in the body. Here are some of the educational strategies and plan that can be helpful to the patient hence making the patient live a better life. First: Explaining how the diagnosis has been made, the reason as to why the symptoms occurred as well as letting the patient be aware of the cause of the diseases.Second: Through identifying and addressing the fears, the anxieties as well as preconceiving the ideas of diabetes. It is advisable that patient should have the knowledge of the disease and stop having the fear towards it and hence have the courage even if they are suffering from the diseases. Third: Through addressing and being associated with the risk and the preventions of type 1 diabetes. Making the patients aware of the dangers that are likely to occur in case they don’t do what the doctor has advised them and so making them do as per the requirement of the doctor. Forth, through practical skills in the in insulin injection.Five;  teaching patients the aspects of being self-confidence and self-management even if they have the disease and make them take the illness in a positive way that they will live long with the disease.Six: Giving out the contact number that patients can be used to call in case of energy and finally making everyone aware of the conditions either those who are already sick and to those that they have not yet been affected by the type 1diabetes among many others teaching strategies and plan used in self –care selection.

                         Interdisciplinary Collaboration of Type 1 Diabetes

Interdisciplinary collaboration refers to the critical phenomenon of healthcare providers and the patient. Collaboration level which takes place between the providers can directly impact the outcomes of the patients. Considering the disease of type 1 diabetes, criteria that are used here includes the TIDM and T2DM and the glycemic which controls the daily multiple injection therapy or an insulin pump where patients require only  500 insulin. Considering the nutrients, that patients suffering from the types one diabetes, the best-preferred nutrients to take is by limiting sugary things and food that contain a lot of carbohydrates. Patients are advised to eat a balanced diet, that is by making sure there is a fruit, vegetable, protein in every meal they take to enable their body to function well and also controls this disease. The disease of Juvenile diabetes grows since the system of immune damages cells that are in the pancreas which create insulin. Since the pancreas is unable to make sufficient insulin, thus the level of blood sugar continues to rise high, and this can also be contributed as a result of genetic in the family. According to the research, it shows that the people who are in high risks of getting type 1 diabetes are the children in the Adolescents stage and the young adults which can lead to other diseases such as acute cancer and the lasting implications (Sheikh et al.,2018). The type 1 diabetes mellitus requires a strict multidisciplinary treatment to treat the patient’s entire life. It is also associated with complications of the long term which causes high morbidity and the mortality hence increasing the cost of health care.



Although the disease of type 1 diabetes has no specific medication that can treat the patients suffering from this disease, it has some medicine that patient is advised to takes which keep her going on with life as well as preventing other illnesses that may begin because of this type of diabetes. The patient and the mother, therefore, did a nice thing of visiting the hospital since we as the healthcare officer we were able to test the patients, in the lab we observed various abnormal signs, we could see the physical symptoms that the patients had and as well as knowing the causes of the diseases. While doing the research, we realised that this kind of condition is inherited. It is also advised to hold teaching programmes to educate people about the diseases for them to be aware of it, hence making patients have confidence and courage when dealing with this kind of conditions. Finally, it is advised that patients should observe what the doctors have recommended and especially in the sectors of eating diet food and also doing a lot of exercise for it will reduce the risk of type 1 diabetes leading to other diseases such as the acute.






Kawamori, D., Katakami, N., Takahara, M., Miyashita, K., Sakamoto, F., Yasuda, T., … &           Shimomura, I. (2019). Dysregulated plasma glucagon levels in Japanese young adult type         1 diabetes patients. Journal of diabetes investigation

Millman, J. R., Xie, C., Van Dervort, A., Gürtler, M., Pagliuca, F. W., & Melton, D. A. (2016).    Generation of stem cell-derived β-cells from patients with type 1 diabetes. Nature        Communications, 7, 11463.

Sheikh, K., Bartz, S. K., Lyons, S. K., & DeSalvo, D. J. (2018). Diabetes Device Use and             Glycemic Control among Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: A Single-Center, Cross-Sectional      Study. Journal of diabetes research, 2018.