Response1, Sample:1(up to 100 words per response) Chapter 7 pp.112-114 Developing a Testable Hypothesis Generally defined as testable statements that predict a relationship between at least two variables When researchers are developing a research hypothesis, they turn to existing literature (p.112). A researcher should not develop hypothesis statements based on a guess or opinion, he/she should be using what other researchers have found (qualitative or quantitative). Here are a few examples of testable hypothesis: If the water faucet is opened, then the amount of water flowing will increase. If fenders are placed on a bicycle, then the user will stay dry when going through puddles. If a prisoner learns a work skill while in jail, then he/she is less likely to commit a crime when they’re released. An independent variable that researchers can write a hypothesis could be “couples who fight over finances are more likely to divorce.” What is Descriptive Research? Description is used in qualitative research or inductive research to help the reader understand the lived experience of people experiencing a phenomenon (p.113). Description is used to convey the feeling of being there and to help the reader understand the experience from the other person’s own perspective. Nonstandardized methods- informal methods of collecting data, such as the use of broad and open-ended questions or a journal or field notes. Descriptive research is used to obtain information concerning the current status of a phenomenon in order to describe variables or conditions in a situation (p.113). Quantitative research methods handle descriptive characteristics about population or phenomenon being studied. (May include methods of data collection, such as surveys). Correlation versus Causation When you are conducting quantitative research, you are attempting to determine whether any relationship exists between variables, and if so, what kind. The relationship can be causal (one variable is causing a change in the other), or it can be correlational relationship, in which two or more variables are linked. A causal relationship requires that three conditions be met: The independent variable must come before the dependent variable. The independent and dependent variables must be correlated. The impact of another variable cannot explain the correlation between the independent and dependent variables. It’s important for researchers that are trying to develop a hypothesis turn to other literature that exists because they could expound on what they find and then can have supporting qualitative or quantitative research that will highlight the hypothesis. I like the causal relationship because it seems that you must have a “cause and effect” relationship between variables in order for the relationship to bond together, for example if you touch a hot stove, then you will get burned. Response2: Defining Survey Research The text states that surveys are a research design in which a sample of subjects is drawn from a population and studied by being interviewed to make inferences about the population. The surveys consist of statements and/or questions in which the subjects respond. Surveys can be used for descriptive, explanatory and exploratory research. Surveys are limited to one point in time and cross-sectional surveys and are repeated at different points of time in longitudinal surveys. Surveys are an inexpensive way to reach a large group of people quickly to describe an individual or a small population. Many are familiar with surveys and are used to completing them and mailed surveys are easy to complete since people are not under any pressure to finish the questions within a certain amount of time but the response rate of male surveys are not that good. (page 126-127) Appropriate Survey Topics Surveys are used appropriately for measuring people’s attitudes, beliefs and behaviors and many things are impossible to measure. (page 127) The text spoke about asking an individual what is the best type of therapy and I agree based on my professional experience that this question is difficult to answer for answer which is not able to be measured. Therapy regardless of what type is being used within individual cannot be measured because different individuals may respond better to different type of therapies. If an individual is suffering from depression and another individual is suffering from a behavior disorder, the most effective therapy based on assessing each individual should be considered and the therapies used will not be the same for both individuals. Developing A Survey The individual who is formulating the survey must make decisions about the survey such as what to leave Van, what to take out and how to phrase questions. The research will not result in absolutes which makes conducting research very difficult. Constructing surveys for large sample and/or population is difficult and requires skills. Directions must be clear and the question should be easy to read and easy to return to the researcher. It is suggested that the researcher uses the rule of parsimony when formulating a survey and this simply means eliminate all unnecessary questions and/or data and party down the survey to the absolute minimum. When developing a survey, the researcher should list every question that one may want to ask. It is also suggested that the researcher begins with demographic variables such as gender, age, ethnicity, income, educational level, marital status and etc. the researcher should also list of variables in the order of demographic, independent and independent because the data analysis will become much easier being that the variables were listed in a logical order. The researcher should also eliminate the questions that are not essential to the study and only include items and questions that will be on the final survey. Keeping the survey as simple and as short as possible is very important. When there are too many questions, the participants may become frustrated with the tests and the answers are just answers which can slight the research in which the survey was trying to accomplish. When completing a survey for individuals to answer, it is important to make sure that the questionnaire is appealing, free from typographical errors, using at least 12 point font and color paper and ink should be avoided as it makes the words difficult to read. (page 127-128) Summary Surveys are a great way to garner information for a particular topic. Knowing the community and/or different demographics the researcher wants to reach is vital to receiving the outcomes wanting to be measured. Surveys should be clear, concise and appropriate to what is being researched. one page single space. up to 100 words or more per response.