Sexual Harassment in Athletics Programs

Sexual Harassment in Athletics Programs


Latest incidents demonstrate that the struggle against sexual harassment is still dismally relevant. It is because sexual harassment is still prevalent, despite decades of legal reform and activism. Similarly, it remains an issue, as the need for a proper theoretical structure to direct action is still as critical as it was many years ago. With the election of Trump and the emergence of #MeToo movement, a time has come to reenergize the theory against sexual harassment. The world is seeing an exceptional cultural resistance movement against sexual harassment, a movement that would bring about real change. It is encouraging to see the tenacity, courage, and wisdom of men and women who have openly questioned the sexual harassment in an endeavor to alter the status quo.

Taking into consideration the recent research indicating that sexual harassment is rampant in the educational institutions, the paper considers the relationship between athletic and sexual harassment. Accordingly, the paper interrogates the responsibility of athletic directors in the prevention of sexual harassment in their initiatives as well as offensive sexual advances done outside the athletic department by individuals affiliated with the initiatives. It is would necessary to assess whether athletics offers a link between perpetrators and sexual harassment because of social status and power associated with males concerned with athletics. Similarly, the paper seeks to make sense of sexual harassment, training programs implementation and abiding by institutional policies to prevent the occurrence of sexual harassment in the athletic departments.

Statement of Issue

About four decades ago, legal experts examining the issue of sexual harassment came full circle. For instance, Catherine MacKinnon concentrated on the wrong of conduct in the late 1970s by justifying the reason courts need to reflect upon sexual harassment as an embodiment of sex discrimination. The research on the topic is critical in enabling the courts and policymakers to understand that sexual harassment has normalized the sexualized discrimination of women in athletics.

Additionally, other people have studied the same issue in detail before. However, since at the time of the earlier research, the studies on sexual harassment in sports were scarce. For that reason, most of the studies primarily relied on the information gathered from studies on sexual harassment in the education system only and at the workplace. Accordingly, it then becomes questionable whether such data should be applicable in the context of sexual harassment in athletics. Therefore, it makes it necessary to conduct further research, as new studies had emerged with more relevant data than it was the case when prior studies were conducted.

Similarly, with the latest research, it is imperative that sexual harassment does not have a single impact. There are numerous effects based on the examined domain and the point in the undertaking where evaluations are conducted. The studies indicate that, apart from the sexual harassment effect itself, the after-impacts are usually affected by disappointment in the stress and in the manner others respond to the stress-harassment life alterations such as litigation trauma, loss of jobs, and moves.

Literature Review

According to Jaime, Stocking, Freire, Perkinson, Ciaravino, & Miller (2016), sex-related harassment, which is sometimes termed as student sex discrimination, is a serious and real issue in athletics. The sex-based harassment term implies to sex-based harassment and the conventional perception of sexual harassment. Even if it does not entail intercollege sports, Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools 503 U.S. 60 (1992) established the sexual harassment recognition by the Supreme Court, as enshrined under Title IX. The matter included a female student Franklin that brought a claim under the Title IX against administrators and the school district following a sexual harassment incident by a coach, which the school district had hired. The Court cited Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson 477 U.S. 57 (1986) and determined that Title IV sexual harassment standards at workplaces should be employed in the school setting. According to Kavanagh, Brown, & Jones (2017), following the decision in Franklin case, the courts have held that a student-athlete while asserting sex harassment claims must prove that he or she is a member of the group under protection; and was exposed to unnecessary harassment. One must also establish that the harassment was sexual and that such sexual offense was adequately extensive or extreme to improperly change the education circumstance and establish an abusive educational situation. Similarly, the plaintiff should demonstrate that some justification for institutional responsibility has been created as per

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