Part I: Short Answer Answer EACH in a paragraph (or two) per question. 1. What were the goals of the major parties in Reconstruction? What problems made reconstruction so difficult? 2. What were the main forms of white resistance to the efforts of reconstructionists? What were the black codes? What effect did they have? 3. What were the various meanings of freedom that emerged after emancipation among freed blacks? How was this resisted by white southerners? 4. What was involved in the “redeeming” of the South? How and why did this occur? Why did white supremacy become the foundation of southern politics in the 1870’s? 5. What were the main ways Indians resisted attempts to annihilate them (and their culture)? 6. Explain “Social Darwinism” and “laissez-faire” economics (particularly as they related to the “Gilded Age”). 7. Identify the following and explain how each acquired his fortune (both in terms of industry and tactics): Jay Gould, Andrew Carnegie, and John D. Rockefeller. 8. What role did the federal government play in the growth and profitability of the railroads (including in response to strikes)? 9. What were the various positions people took on the currency (or “free silver”) debate(s) in the Gilded Age and why did they take these various positions? 10. Explain “bossism.” What were it’s advantages and disadvantages? 11. Explain the spoils system. How did it eventually end and why did its demise lead to the increase in the influence of business in politics? 12. Why was there an increase in lynchings at the end of the 19th century? 13. Explain the role of women in politics in the last decades of the nineteenth century. What causes did they endorse, what obstacles did they face, and what role did the “cult of domesticity” play in their tactics/power? 14. Compare the roles played in policy and public life by the Republican and Democratic parties during Reconstruction and during the Gilded Age. What causes did they support and what kinds of voters and support did each attract during each of these periods? 15. Explain the nature of migration and immigration during the last half of the 19th-century. 16. Explain the goals and programs of both the Farmers Alliance and the People’s Party (Populist Party). 17. What were the main issues motivating the labor unions during the Gilded Age, how did they try to achieve them, and why were they unsuccessful? 18. Identify each of the following and explain why they were important: Homestead lockout, Cripple Creek miners’ strike, Pullman boycott, and Coxey’s army. 19. Identify and explain each of the following: Monroe Doctrine, Open Door policy, and yellow journalism. 20. How did the U.S. come to control Cuba, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam? 21. Why, and in what ways, did the situation of Black Americans actually worsen during the Progressive Era? Explain the case of Plessy v. Ferguson. 22. Explain the contrasting views of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois. 23. Explain the ideology of the Progressives, both in terms of the “social gospel” and in terms of their understanding of Darwinism. (Illustrate with examples of actions they undertook.) 24. Compare the following: anarchists, socialists, and progressives. 25. Explain Roosevelt’s “square deal” and describe his actions as both reformer and conservationist. 26. How did Wilsons’ progressivism differ from Roosevelt’s? How did Wilson’s progressive agenda change during his presidency? 27. Explain Wilson’s notion of “national determination” and explain why it was problematic. 28. Explain how and why dissent was suppressed during World War I and comment on its possible effects. 29. In what sense, and why, had American culture drastically changed after World War I? 30. Describe and explain the “Great Migrations” of Black Americans and Mexicans during the early 20th century. 31. What were the causes of the economic crisis (1928-1932) that led to the Great Depression? Part II: Essay Answer these in seperate essays of 4-6 paragraphs. A. Develop an essay in which you explain the nature of the struggle between labor and management/ownership in U.S. history from the Civil War to 1932. In arguing for your interpretation choose three important examples from the history of this period to support your claims. B. Develop an essay in which you explain the nature of the struggle for women’s rights during this period (1865-1932). In arguing for your interpretation choose three important examples from the history of this period to support your claims. C. In what sense might we consider the United States an imperialist country during the post-Civil War era up to the end of Word War I? In arguing for your interpretation choose three important examples from the history of this period to support your claims.