response task#1 (up to 100 words or more)Single-subject-design studies have basic components. The components are selecting the target outcome, selecting the intervention, selecting the measurement tool, collecting baseline data, collecting intervention data, and conducting the analysis. Selecting the Target Outcome In order for the single-subject design to be successful, the helper must help the helpee figure out what behavior or feelings need to be changed. It is imperative that the helper and the helpee agree on the target outcome. Selecting the Intervention The procedure utilized to cause a change in research is known as an intervention. It is best to choose an intervention based on a literature review when using a single-subject research design. Helpers often find multiple interventions for the problem, but they must figure out which one is the best choice for the helpee. Selecting the Measurement tool In single-subject research, standardized measures are usually used to assemble information. Standardized measures are appropriate, reliable, and valid. There are many standardized measures that can be utilized. Collecting Baseline Data There is no intervention during the baseline phase of the study. The baseline data is used as a starting point in which all intervention information is compared to measure a change. Information must be collected over time so there are no irregularities and an average can be created. Collecting Intervention Data This is when the intervention phase is started and information is recorded to see how the intervention is working. The information is collected over a period of time and compared to the baseline data. Conducting the Analysis There are two ways in which to analyze the data. The first is by using a graph and seeing if a change happened over a period of time. The second involves averaging a subject’s scores and seeing if a change occurred. Response/task#2:(up to 100 words or more) “Social work ethics demand that we provide high-quality services to our consumers. Section5.02(a) of the Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social Workers (2008) States: Social workers should monitor and evaluate policies, the implementation of programs, and practice interventions” (Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 142). With the economy the way it is today, agencies have to make sure their programs are effective and working. They have to make sure they are effective so they can meet their goals and objectives. They have to be accountable for how their spend their money. The government could cut off their grants, etc. “Program evaluation is a research design and analysis that evaluates specific characteristics of a program within an agency” (Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 143). There are two types of program evaluations: process evaluations and outcome evaluations. Process evaluations: “is generally an internal evaluation process that is initated in the early stages of a program” (Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 143). An internal evaluation is simply an evaluation that is conducted at the request or desire of the agency. A baseline is a beginning point in research that established an initial sense of how a program, group, or individual is currently functioning. They can track the progress this way. They can monitor the changes of the baseline. It uses a qualitative approach: “What does our program look like?” “Is our program effective?” A quantitative approach is also used: “How satisfied are you with the services you received?” They can answer on a scale from 1-5. A process evaluation can be conducted up to multiple times, within the first ninety days, then repeated at other intervals, (quarterly, every six month, every nine months, yearly) to see if the program is meeting its goals and objective. “In general, a process evaluation has three main goals: to construct a program description, to monitor a program and to assess the quality of services being provided” (Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 144). Program description “first goal is simply an attempt to delineate the setup, routines, and consumer characteristics of a program” (Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 145). An example is in the book, 9.1, pg 145. Set up of the program included the types of services being provided, the location of services, and the mission. There is other information you might want to gather: ” the routine of the services provided, such as frequency with which services are offered, times and days services are available, and number and types of workers who offer services” (Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 146). You will want to measure the number of consumers you serve, their characteristics: how many, sex, race, age, income level, marital status, any children, etc”(Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 146). Faulkner, S. & Faulkner, C. (2014). Research Methods for Social Workers. A Practice-Based Approach. 2nd Edition. Lyceum Books, Inc. Works Cited Faulkner ET AL. (2014). Qualitative Research Designs. Research Methods for Social Workers. Pg. 158-161. Chicago, IL.