How Can I get started!? You are required to address your agreed (agreed with project supervisor) topic broadly; considering evidence collected using any appropriate study designs to increase your appreciation of the subject through critical appraisal of work done by others. Therefore, the aim of the literature review is to show your supervisor that you have read, and have a good grasp of, the main published work concerning a particular topic or question in your field. The review should not be simply a description of what others have published in the form of a set of summaries, but should take the form of a critical discussion of strength and limitations of published studies, showing insight and awareness of different methodologies and approaches. Once you have analysed, synthesized, and evaluated the relevant sources for your topic, you need to think about presenting the material in a way that will best shape your argument and make sense to your readers. Once you have analysed, synthesized, and evaluated the relevant sources for your topic, you need to think about presenting the material in a way that will best shape your argument and make sense to your readers. The literature review includes [the following list of subheadings is just for Guidance! Please note: It is your duties to CONFIRM that following points are in-line with Andy’s guidelines on this assignment and or assessment criteria]: 1. A short background information about the topic Keep this concise. Essentially, you should show – in your introduction – a broad understanding of the history which led to scientific interest in your chosen topic and its relevance to your nutrition degree. 2. Review aims State the purpose of your review 3. Description of your search strategy and study selection process [Process of Review the Literature] a. Type information sources: databases, experts, funding agencies, personal files, registries, citation lists of retrieved articles. Discuss with your supervisor about the best data sources for your review. b. Determine restrictions: time frame (we agreed 10-15 years old papers would be good start). Identify the size of available literature. Depending on your topic, the number of available papers can be massive and most likely you will not be able to summarize all identified papers. Therefore, it is relevant to inform the reader the summary of your search results (or initial scoping exercise). This information can be tabulated or be presented as a text or figure. c. Review of Literature – A review of the key literature in this area that you are likely to relate your results to in the discussion section. 4. Data and results – Analyse and present your findings in an appropriate manner. 5. Evidence synthesis and critical evaluation of strength and limitations of published studies [Discussion] The main content of your review must be the critique of evidence found. This should comprise a balanced discussion and evaluation of the strengths, weakness and notable features of the articles/texts you have reviewed. Remember to base your discussion on specific criteria. Good reviews also include other sources to support your evaluation (as always, remember to reference these – and use the Harvard style!). 6. Conclusions Draw valid conclusions but keep this brief. Re-state your overall scientific opinion of the material you have reviewed (as in the introduction). Briefly present some recommendations (as last point of critique) and – if necessary – qualify or explain further your judgement. This should be scientifically based and balanced. 7. References: Cite as you write and reference using the HARVARD style. 8. Appendix Any other relevant material (e.g. additional tables or figures). YOUR Writing Style A good literature review needs a clear line of argument. You therefore need to use the critical notes and comments you made whilst doing your reading to express an academic opinion. Your review must be written in a formal, academic style. Keep your writing clear and concise, avoiding colloquialisms and personal language. You should always aim to be objective and respectful of others’ opinions; this is not the place for emotive language or strong personal opinions. If you thought something was rubbish, use words such as “inconsistent”, “lacking in certain areas” or “based on false assumptions”. When introducing someone’s opinion, don’t use “says”, but instead an appropriate verb which more accurately reflects this viewpoint, such as “argues”, “claims” or “states”. Use the present tense for general opinions and theories, or the past when referring to specific research or experiments. Key point to consider: To be critical does not mean to be negative. The intention within this coursework is to encourage you to question information and opinions presented in material which you use professionally, ultimately using this process to present your evaluation or judgement of the research area or series of texts. Types of information source PubMed and Web of Science are the most popular databases used to find relevant literature. PubMed focuses on biomedical and clinical journals. Web of Science is interdisciplinary and covers all scientific areas.