Missisipi, The eutrophication of the estuaries and the enclosed coastal, see has fundamentally increased over the last few decades. According to the evidence of change is seen in the Skagerrak, the Dutch Wadden Sea, and the Baltic Sea. Mississippi and Atchafalaya are the major rivers that debouch into the continental shelf that is relatively closed; hence the nutrient load has increased resulting in biological effects on the coastal regions.
The primary sources for freshwater, in the continental shelf contributing to more than 43% are the rives Mississipi and the Atchafalaya.more than a third of the Mississipi water of the remaining section is charged in the Mississipi River system.The recent and rapid changes in the concentration, as well as the rations of the end-member nutrients, have affected the coastal ecosystems in several ways. One of the collective effects is influencing an increase in the rate of phytoplankton production rates. This increase in the nutrient concentrations and loading of phosphates and nitrates have lent to a decrease in the amount of silicate leading to alterations of the nutrient concentrations, causing corresponding reduction in the nutrient concentration in the nutrient composition in the adjacent continental shelf. The level of silica usually reduces the growth of diatoms in the water. Diatoms are all groups of algae microorganisms that grow in water. As a result of the reduced silicate and increased nutrient load, the diatoms production in the gulf has dramatically improved. Also,increased nitrogen and phosphorous concentration have lent to rapid growth in the plague population.
Diatoms are one of the commonly used indicators for the changes in the environmental conditions within the river system. However,identifying the deposition rates and amounts is usually a challenge. The accumulation of the silicate and the high biologically bound silica have lent to alteration of the stoichiometric nutrient balance in the entire continental shelf.
The excess nutrient load in the river has an economic impact on the affected countries including the United States and Mexico. The poor water quality leads to loss of revenue as the river is a tourist center. The growth of the algae leads to death, and other pollutants lead to the destruction of fish and other aquatic animals. As a result, the level of fishing activities decreases leading to loss of income and livelihood especially to those who depend mostly on fishing as a source of livelihood. As a nation, the amount of funds that have to be used in cleaning water increases hence costing the country more.
Elevated nutrient levels lead to a decrease in the level of property value for the properties which are near the river. This is due to increased water clarity, reduction in the dissolved concentration of oxygen which makes the nearby homes less valuable because the environment becomes pathetic. According to study on the effect of water clay and or direct water quality metrics using hedonic analysis on property value,which was conducted on Mid Atlantic,Midwest and South East regions,the study shows that the clear and quality water leads to an increase in property prices of the neighboring properties while less clear water due to diatoms and other pollutants leads to a decrease in the capital of the neighboring areas.
Nutrient load also leads to human health effects. Algae blooms cause a variety of a considerable number of diseases to human beings and animals through direct contact with skin.This mostly occurs during drinking water and recreation. Consumption of contaminated fish also leads to adverse health effects, which accounts for the increased rate of food poisoning especially in the areas along River Mississippi.This health effect depends on the season, and the cost can rise to more than $ 130,000 especially on algal blooms.
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