Q1. Describe the conditions in European Society in the 19th century that led to conflict between the working and the middle classes on one side, and the aristocracy and the monarchy on the other.
In 1814, Europe's ambassadors met at a Congress in Vienna where they decided to reestablish monarchies and abolish republican governments after Emperor Napoleon's defeat. Aristocrats and monarchs suppressed lower and middle-class hopes for democracy. Consequently, citizens lacked fundamental rights like food, employment and freedom of expression, especially for the press and voting. Property owners could vote and were exempted from taxation while poor citizens toil
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