The world is at the brink of the anticipated transformation from the digital perspective that is orchestrated by the 4th industrial revolution. Even though numerous benefits are anticipated with the increased efficiency and effective service delivery, the fourth industrial revolution presents numerous problems and challenges to the public administration. One of the concerns is that not many developing nations have the needed resources or the materials needed to execute these technological advancements. The problems go beyond the social disruptions of the social disruptions of the values and the challenges that confront the government. The government has been massively affected by the inventions of the fourth industrial revolution. The problems that engulf the government also include the threats that he 4th industrial real violation to the government. Despite all these, the government has to embrace the fourth industrial revolution based on the capacities and the potential that new inventions hold on the continuous improvements in terms of the global economy. The fourth industrial revolution is also known as there (4IR) is an era that is occupied by significant industrial changes and technological advancements. This is the era where people experience artificial intelligence. The first industrial revolution started in the 18th with the introduction of the steam engines to make work easier. The second, third and fourth generations have also been full of innovations, some of which have been more objective than others. The fourth industrial revolution is occupied by numerous characteristics that are different from their experiences within the initial stages. One of the most common characteristics is the fusion of technology that has formed a visible line between digital spheres, physical and biological spheres (World Economic Forum, 2016, 4). This era of the industrial revolution is accompanied by numerous changes known as a cyber-physical system. The emergence of technology has marked the breakthrough of different fields including artificial intelligence, quantum physics, and biotechnology. Internet, as well as industrial manufacturers of nanotechnology, are some of the basic examples that have been witnessed through this period. Different scientists have called this age to be the second age and the new technological advancement age, which reflects the artificial intelligence and digitalization of the world. The whole economy has changed broad width advancement in biological ideas seen at different eras. Despite the many positives that come with the fourth revolution, it also presents many other challenges and disadvantages that it presents to the people (Carvalho, Chaim, Cazarini, and Gerolamo, 2018, 672). Some of the positives associated with it include the transformation of the entire production system as well as their management and governance. It has also changed the way security is viewed from the beginning and when it was done physically and on an annual basis up to the time that security has become more advanced for the layman to understand. Emerging technology such as artificial intelligence and robot have created unemployment and has come with numerous disadvantages that have been mentioned in various forums. Is these disadvantages that make the fourth wave of industrial revolution an idea that is still not accepted by everyone depending on how they are viewing it. This paper aims to analyze the changes in the 4th industrial revolution and how it has changed people's lives.
The main aim of the research is to identify the distinctive features if the fourth industrial revolution and the effects that it has had on the governmental and public administration. The research will show reasons why governments need to embrace the innovations in the fourth industrial revolution to improve service delivery and improve the lives of the people.
The following objectives will act as guidelines in conducting this research:
The following research questions have been developed to guide the conduction of this research to create a focus on the themes within the questions.
This research has numerous significance in various academic institutions as well as the public sectors. Through studying the impact of the 4th industrial revolution and how these changes took place, it becomes easier to fit into the system and make maximum use of these changes in the set. The research will help gain an understanding of the application of modern technologies in management and public administration. Through studying the operations of the 4th industrial revolution, the student can understand the issues within the United Arab Emirates and other colleges that are within the Middle East. This research can help society as a whole to contribute to the success of the country by making full use of the new ideas of the fourth industrial revolution. For the countries that have been effective in engaging with the citizens, several technologies within the fourth industrial revolution can even improve on the interaction thereby allowing the citizens to actively participate in the government operations, including digital surveillance participation.
The industrial revolution has undergone numerous changes through time. From the first steam engine that allowed the turbines to move around to make work easier to the time when people depend on artificial intelligence public administration, the changes have been significant to the people's lives. The first industrial revolution took place from the start of the 18th century to the later stages of the eighteenth century. According to (Romero et al., 2016, 29), this era of the industrial revolution was mainly witnessed in Europe and two significant parts of North America. It was a time when the agrarian revolution that took place with various rural societies starting to build industries. The changes through time could allow the people to adjust to the demands in the society (Liu, 2017, 5). At the time, textile and iron industries were the main components of development together with steam engines that were major parts of the industrial revolution. When it comes to the second industrial revolution, it started from the year 1870 and ended before the first world war in the year 1914 (Colombo, Karnouskos, Kaynak., Shi, and Yin, 2017, 6). This second revolution was mainly marked by the massive growth of industries including the steel industry and others such as electricity. Electric power was discovered at this time and was mainly used to increase production that benefits the people and improves the growth in the industries. Several technological advancements could be noted during this time including photographs, telephones and light bulbs. When it comes to the third industrial revolution, this was the beginning of the digital age. The digital revolution involved advancement in technology where people moved from analog electronics to devices that were operated using digital means.
The change from the third to the fourth industrial revolution took the shortest time between the two. The period started to be witnessed in the during the 1980s after early 2000 according to (Jones, and Pimdee, 2017, 4). Majority of the innovations were changing from physical technology to the digital operations. The major advancement during this age was the invention of the internet and the increased use of personal computers together with information communication and technology. The fourth industrial revolution expanded on the digital revolution that represents how technology can be embedded in a society and even form part of the human body. The fourth industrial revolution was the beginning of a technological breakdown that was applied in making artificial intelligent robots and the use of quantum computers (Leydesdorff, 2018, 16). Numerous characteristics are crucial in describing this era. It is also occupied by numerous other interventions including autonomous vehicles (Morrar, Arman, and Mousa, 2017, 12).
Numerous resources were part of these revolutions. Oil and electricity facilitated the programs has allowed mass production throughout the second and first industrial revolution. Information technology and electronic production were the reasons behind the success or the third industrial revolution with numerous ideas working perfectly. The industrial revolution is in many ways seen to be different and is a separate event that allows for a series of events that builds on innovation and advanced forms of production.
The major changes have been witnessed in the 4th industrial revolution include the developments of the fields that had been disjointed previously. These innovations include into-area and artificial intelligence. The machine learning together with the robotics have changed the way companies perform their functions. Nanotechnology, 3D printing together with the genetical biotechnology have been part of the general evolution. In relation to the development of various advancements in the application in the government, different innovations have been seen. Despite the serious threats that they pose to the government in terms of the business and the labor market, the needed skillset has always remained a problem despite not affecting the applications of the technologies.
The major infects of the 4th industrial revolution on institutions and economies cannot be quantified because of the challenges that it has also brought to the same development and economy. The transformation of people's interaction and work have also given new dimensions to defining an economic success that differs massively from the conventional stock (Morrar, Arman, and Mousa, 2017, 12). Understanding new technologies are key to describing the potential of the 4th industrial revolution and their critical disruptions that it has cost nations including developing countries. Large portions of the world are connected through the social media platform that the line of the changes around the globe in terms of information management. There are new forms of competition that are brought about by marketing platforms and sales distribution strategies that improves the price and quality of goods and services in a way that is quite different from the first and second industrial revolution. The changes have also been witnessed in the supply and distribution contribution (Eberhard et al., 2017, 4). The business environment is also part of these quality changes and organizational innovation.
Just like the other revolutions that came before, the fourth industrial revolution has had the potentials of raising the global income and have improved the lives of the people. These ideas have gained popularity as numerous other people are joining the revolution (Hirschi, 2017, 1). The main concern has been the fact that not everyone can afford the digital platform to explore the existing potential of the 4th industrial. For those who cannot afford them, they are left in the revolution and cannot access the virtual world. Technology has also made it possible for numerous services and other products to change how people operate and conduct their personal lives (Prisecaru, 2016, 57). The current impact of the fourth digital revolution is seen in almost all walks of life and will
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