Some factors combined created a need for a strong national government than the issued confederation articles. American manufacturing was slow to grow because the Congress had limited powers, therefore, could not inflict high duty to safeguard the state’s industry from outside competition. West residents called for a more audacious policy on land sessions and also requested protection from Indian attacks. Entrepreneurs were looking forward to a government that could provide international trade arguments favorable for entrepreneurship. Modifying the articles was not considered to be urgent among the south, and mid-Atlantic nations through their leaders agreed that free navigation of the Mississippi River and dispute resolution with Spain needed an answer from a stable government.
Constitutional Convention- In 1787 the month of May, 55 delegates from 12 states had a meeting in Philadelphia. Rhode Island was not in attendance. Among them were Alexandra Hamilton, Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, and James Madison. The representatives were men in the age limit of 30-40. Many of them were lawyers and had worked in Congress. Though the convention’s main agenda was to revise the confederation articles, the partakers swiftly moved to advance a new government structure.
Virginia and New Jersey plan- The previous constitutional discussions focused on James Madison’s proposal that came to be known as the Virginia plan also identified as large state plan. The project called for a legislature that is bicameral with empowerment to create laws and impose taxes with both houses representation on a population basis. Voters would elect lower house members in every state while upper house members would be selected by lower house from nominated candidates by the legislatures of the country. The plan had no presentation for choosing an executive. The president was to be selected by the national parliament to work for one term and was responsible for implementing all laws. The government was also responsible for appointing judges, to supreme courts and lower federal courts. Madison’s proposal was opposed immediately. William Paterson from New Jersey noted that the massive state plan would give substantial power to Virginia and New York states, offered a less drastic departure from confederation articles. The New Jersey plan also known as small state plan maintained the one house legislature of the confederation congress but expounded its powers to incorporate increasing revenue and controlling commerce. State legislatures chose members, and every state was granted one vote. A multi-person executive selected from by the parliament was suggested. The executives who could be removed by majority votes of governors appointed supreme courts judges. Legislatively passed laws were stated binding and multi-person executive was authorized to force obedience to the state law.
The great comprise – New Jersey plan was opposed, but the Congress division of representation divided the convention of the constitution. The big states wanted proportionate representation by population, and the smaller countries demanded equal representation, i.e., one state one vote. The resolution of the dilemma was brought by the Great compromise which made many seats in the parliament proportionate to every state’s population, and people directly elected representatives. In Senate, each state was expected to have two independent voters chosen by the legislatures.
Slavery and presidency- The issue of slaves in every state’s population was solved by a method used by confederation congress in the year 1783. The community was determined by the total number of free persons and three-fifths of all other persons. The phrase all other persons stood for slaves. The representatives permitted the slave trade to proceed by limiting the Congress power to prevent it in 1808 and came to an agreement that refugee slaves should be taken back to their masters. The convention received one executive person but highly debated on how to elect the president whether by Congress or by people. Election of the administrative person was solved through Electoral College invention. The legislatures of the state were required to choose a similar number of voters as their total sum of congressional representatives, and the voters were demanded to vote for two candidates for the presidential seat. The candidate with the highest votes became the president while the candidate with the second most votes became the vice president. In case of a tie was to be decided by the parliament where each state would have one vote. During the convention, other implements of the new government were shaped out. Constitution issues power separation whereby the government operations are handled by the legislature, judiciary, and executive branches and checks and balances mechanisms ensures that one chapter does not govern the others. The president can dismiss laws passed by the convention, but the agreement can override the dismissal by two-thirds votes. , but the house of the Senate must approve all deals.
Constitution ratification- at least nine states were required to confirm the constitution. After the Congress finished its operations in September 1787, the ratification discussion stormed in newspapers, pamphlets, and state legislature floors. To educate citizens and galvanize public debate, John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison wrote some essays in support of the stable government granted in the constitution which were printed in papers across the nation. The articles are together referred as federalist papers, and those who supported ratification were named as antifederalists in the belief that the new document gave excess power to the national government and left too little for the states. Individual liberty staunch proponents highly attacked omission of rights included in some states constitutions. On June 1788 New Hampshire became the ninth state to approve the constitution. Rhode Island took action in 1790 though at that time the government had already begun functioning under the constitution. The last remaining states were unable to stay outside the new nation.