One of the most common and problematic disorder that affects the vein is venous thrombosis. This is a defect that leads to the formation of a clot or a thrombus in the veins. According to (Lewis, Heitkemper, Dirksen, & Bucher, 2014), one of the main types of venous thrombosis is the deep vein thrombosis that leads to the formation of a clot in the leg that is mostly experienced in the femoral veins. Several factors cause damage to the endothelium and hypercoagulability, which is one of the contributing factors to the deep vein thrombosis formation (Huether & McCance, 2012). One of the most frequent sides wear different thrombosis forms is the valve casp for the vein system. In this site, venous stasis leads to the accumulation of the other blood products. When the thrombus infection enlarges, the blood cells together with fee brings all come behind it that leads to the clerks of the vane lumen (Lewis, Heitkemper, Dirksen, & Bucher, 2014). In case the thrombus leads the formation of an obstruction to the blood flow within the veins, there is an increased amount of pressure that affects the vein as a result of the clot and may lead to a situation known as extremity edema according to (Huether & McCance, 2012). The development of this thrombus can sometimes lead to an ambulance floor that takes place in the van during circulation as well as some lodges within the pulmonary system leading to embolism.
Pathophysiology of Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI)
Chronic vein Inefficiency, also known as the (CVI) is an inadequate form of venous return that takes place after some time. These venues foam takes place as a result of a returning DVT. The primary dysfunctional operation of the valve is incompetent especially those that are in their deep veins. This leads to hydrostatic pressure that increases the fluid flow and leads to licking of the red blood cells from the capillaries as they drain into the other tissues resulting in edema. Some enzymes cause hemosiderin release and a breakdown of the red blood cells leading to a discoloration of the skin, mostly seen ass brown skin according to (Lewis, Heitkemper, Dirksen, & Bucher, 2014). When the disease increases without being treated, subcutaneous tissues under the skin are replaced by the fibrous tissues that lead to a contracted scheme that is thick and hard. Several symptoms include pooling of the blood veins and hyperpigmentation of the skin as well as the ankles.
Venous and Arterial Thrombosis
Different thrombosis in the blood clot forms within the vein. The three major crucial factors include THE VENOUS STasis and damage that has been done to endothelium together with the process of hypercoagulability in the blood. This process is associated with an unmatched red blood cell that gets into the red thrombi or fibrin. The venous thrombosis develops into pulmonary embolism which is more complicated as the arteries narrow progressively through degenerating their neck and abdominal arteries. It can also lead to the development of peripheral disease of the artery. Different thrombosis diseases and infections can be developed and progress into pulmonary embolism which is more complicated. Arterial thrombosis goes through some risk as cardiovascular disease. This infection can lead to mortality and myocardial infarction. The four most common risk factors for this disease include smoking cigarettes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. Arterial thrombi come as a result of the black lips that have little red cells and fiber that makes them look like white thrombi.
Gender Factor for DVT and CVI
Gender is a significant determinant and has a massive influence on the pathophysiology of the two diseases of the veins. The diseases frequency and the rate increases tremendously after a person reaches the age of 45 and is seen to be higher in men more than women especially after 45 years. Men are likely to develop DVT at the rate of 37% which is a higher percentage compared to the 14 women which are only 24%. Pregnant women and women on birth control pills together with those women you have undergone therapy risks the blood clots of the DVT (Suszynski, 2014). This takes place because the hormones that are involved in all of this sex substances makes it easy for the blood to clot. When the women are pregnant, the uterus pressure leads to bloating as well. The risk of a blood clot continues for up around six weeks after the mother has had the baby(Suszynski, 2014).
Diagnosis and Treatment.
Historical and physical examinations can be useful in determining the probability of contracting DVT before doing the testing. The diagnosis of these diseases is done by ultrasonography or duplex ultrasonography. There’s always a need to help additional tests such as the d dimer test and a choice that depends on their trust sonography result according to (Lewis, Heitkemper, Dirksen, & Bucher, 2014). The elephants on modernization are the most cost-effective methods that are used to reduce the chances of contracting a DVT. The other is the use of compression stocking that decreases the diastole caliph thrombosis through reducing venous stasis. There are several anticoagulants including Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin that can be used as drugs for the therapy. These are usually provided for the patients as they prevent the blood clotting process. They also reduce the possible development of the new thrombus according to ((Lewis, Heitkemper, Dirksen, & Bucher, 2014). In most cases, the use of routinized prophylactic therapy can help to reduce infections. As for the CVI, there is the usual moist dressing to relieve and cater to the wound.
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis MO: Mosby.
Lewis, M.S., Heitkemper, M.M., Dirksen, S.R., Bucher, L. (2014). Medical-surgical nursing: assessment management of clinical problems (9thed.). St. Louis, Missouri. Mosby
Suszynski, M. (2014). The truth about sex differences in deep vein thrombosis. Everyday Health. Retrieved from: http://www.everydayhealth.com/news/truth-about-sex-differences-deep-vein-thrombosis