Vitamin D comes in two forms; these are D2 and D3. Vitamin D3 is also known as the cholecalciferol and D2 is referred to as ergocalciferol. Vitamin D3 is also the form of the vitamin that is made by the body, and it is the main nutrient that fortifies milk and other food substances including the breakfast cereals. When the skin is exposed to the sun, the body manufactures vitamin D3. on the other hand, VITAMIN d2 is made by plants and fungus that respond to ultraviolet light. Both vitamin D2 and D3 are related to hormone response in the body. A supplement of the vitamin can contain either of the D2 or D3 and is made from the materials of plants. While taking the supplements, it is recommended that one takes the ones that have vitamin D3 (Sempos et al., 2018). For a long time, it was thought that the two had the same benefits. Recent studies have shown that D2 is less stable and is lea effective as compared to vitamin D3. This is also the reason why many people recommend supplements that have vitamin D3 (Ganguly et al., 2018). Nonetheless, studies have also shown that D2 is just as effective as the D3 when used at the right dose. It is this reason why it is recommended that the doctor should decide the best form of vitamin D that is best for expectant mothers.
Food sources of vitamin D
The body needs vitamin D to function properly. It is often recommended that expectant mothers should use enough vitamin d to avoid the risk of getting osteoporosis. The best way to get more vitamins into the body is through the right diet. Some of the vitamin sources include fatty fish like tuna, salmon and mackerel. There are different food sources of vitamin D including dairy products, soy milk and orange juice. Beef liver and egg York have vitamins as well as cheese. It is always advisable to use fish like the food source of the vitamin. Milk is also a fortified source of vitamin D (Vinkhuyzen et al., 2018). The ready to eat cereals are also good sources. Naturally, cheese contains some amounts of vitamin D. it is always advisable to start the day with a breakfast that is full of vitamin d from soy milk. Orange juice and cereals and some yoghurt are also the most common breakfast sources to vitamin D. when it comes to fruits and veggies; they are also important sources of vitamin d. Orange is a good source.
Research shows that pregnant women who take much of vitamin D during the winter time are good for the child as it strengthens the bones of the baby. The weak bones results to conditions such s osteoporosis (Scragg et al., 2018). Therefore, taking vitamin d during the pregnancy can act as the main strength for the bones during the winter months. It is always beneficial for the pregnant women to deliver during the summer so that the child can get enough sunlight as the body will be able to produce enough vitamins and can sustain the massive growth of the bones. Such children can cope with a lot of pressure, and they have thicker structures in their bodies. The mother has to know the time for delivery before they add vitamins into their system. ßThe supplements counteract the seasonal drop in the level of vitamin d that comes as a result of the lack of sunlight. The growth of bones in the womb during the early periods of infants leads to the overall strengths in the later periods in life. The weak bones that are experienced during the early children life lead to conditions such as arthritis and other problems at an older age. During the events (Pludowski et al., 2018), it is essential to take more vitamin supplements to compensate for the lack of sunlight. This is an idea that all pregnant mothers have to take into consideration. Research also shows that children that are born during the winter months benefit in case their mothers were taking the vitamin d supplement while they were still pregnant. Their bone mass is also larger than those of the winter-born babies whose mothers got a placebo. Because the sun is the most important energy source, the levels of vitamins d drops during the period from summer to winter and the opposite is true as well.
Several factors might affect the production of the 1,25-[OH]2 D3 in the human body. This is an important part of the human hormonal control. The active hormonal form of vitamin D is the 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. From this, the seco-steroid is the key actor and mediator to the vitamin in the endocrine system. It produces numerous biological effects in more than twenty-eight target tissues (Manson et al., 2019). The biological responses usually come from the signal mechanism of transduction, and it involves the receptor for the 1,25(OH)2D3. The interaction between the VDRs and the cell membrane affects the production of the 1,25(OH) 2D3 . 1,25(OH)2D3 modulate the transcription processes of the gene together with the transduction pathways of the signals and involves the opening of the Ca2+ channels in the external parts of the plasma membrane. Pleiotropic effects the pren=sence of this steroid hormone and gives the evidence that the receptor of genomic effect can be separated from the recognition between the membrane and the receptor.
Manson, J. E., Cook, N. R., Lee, I. M., Christen, W., Bassuk, S. S., Mora, S., … & Friedenberg, G. (2019). Vitamin D supplements and prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 380(1), 33-44.
Pludowski, P., Holick, M. F., Grant, W. B., Konstantynowicz, J., Mascarenhas, M. R., Haq, A., … & Rudenka, E. (2018). Vitamin D supplementation guidelines. The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology, 175, 125-135.
Scragg, R., Khaw, K. T., Toop, L., Sluyter, J., Lawes, C. M., Waayer, D., … & Camargo, C. A. (2018). Monthly high-dose vitamin D supplementation and cancer risk: a post hoc analysis of the vitamin D assessment randomised clinical trial. JAMA oncology, 4(11), e182178-e182178.
Vinkhuyzen, A. A., Eyles, D. W., Burne, T. H., Blanken, L. M., Kruithof, C. J., Verhulst, F., … & McGrath, J. J. (2018). Gestational vitamin D deficiency and autism-related traits: the Generation R Study. Molecular Psychiatry, 23(2), 240.
Sempos, C. T., Heijboer, A. C., Bikle, D. D., Bollerslev, J., Bouillon, R., Brannon, P. M., … & Giustina, A. (2018). Vitamin D assays and the definition of hypovitaminosis D: Results from the First International Conference on Controversies in Vitamin D. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 84(10), 2194-2207.
Ganguly, A., Tamblyn, J. A., Finn-Sell, S., Chan, S. Y., Westwood, M., Gupta, J., … & Hewison, M. (2018). Vitamin D, the placenta and early pregnancy: effects on trophoblast function. Journal of Endocrinology, 236(2), R93-R103.