Walter’s Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World, mirrors the needs that the Americans had when fighting for independence from the British. The Appeals listed the hardships that blacks faced under whites, which is the same problem that Americans experienced with the British. Forthwith, the Declaration of Independence and the Appeals allude to the same interests and use evidence to support their claims. Walter’s Appeal is a logical expansion of the ideas of The Declaration of Independence like equality of man and fighting oppressors and also used evidence to convince the public as did the Declaration.

Condemning Slavery

Walker condemns slavery, as does the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration condemns the King of Great Britain as having a record of being a tyrant, who gained this position by constantly usurping and injuring his colonies[1].Comparatively, Walker condemns whites for their support of slavery. According to Walker, the white Christians, instead of enlightening fellow blacks, they plunged into wretchedness that was intolerable by ten times and stressed that blacks were an inferior and different race of beings that they could swallow by and by[2]. Christian whites were the worst oppressors in the history of human existence; worse than the English, Egyptians, and any heathen nation. The Egyptians were better than whites because, despite their oppressive ways, there is no writing, sacred or even profane, indicating that they were not of the human family[3]. Walker also condemned President Jefferson, who declared to the world that blacks were inferior to whites. Mr. Jefferson stated that it was unfortunate to be born black, an utterance that Walter found degrading. The statements shocked Walter, who regarded Mr. Jefferson, a man of great man, who was learned and had incredible parts. The Declarationof Independenceand Jefferson demonstrate the existence of slavery.

The Declaration of Independence and Walter condemn their rulers for enslaving them. The Americans have had enough of oppression by Britain, and seek their freedom. They are not pleased with the dictatorial leadership style used by the King and even avail evidence in a list of accusation, to show their discontent. Equally, Walker castigates whites for their oppressive ways.Walker is even angrier that Christians, who are supposed to be good to others as their Bible dictates, even consider blacks non-human[4]. It is ironic that Jefferson, who wrote the declaration of independence, declaring all men equal, was a racist. Jefferson is repeatedly addressed by Walker to illustrate the double standards that whites have concerning equality. At one point, he states that the equal men enjoying liberty as stated in the declaration means all men except those of African heritage, were similar. By speaking out against oppression, Walker is not radical. Instead, he is holding to account leaders like Jefferson and whites for partaking in depriving blacks their rights as human beings created by the same God. Walker shares the same opinion against slavery as the Declaration of Independence.

Fighting Back Against Oppressors

The Declaration and Walker encourage the citizens to revolt against cruel masters. The Declaration states that although the government should not change over slight issues, a government that contravenes the rights of beings and denies them safety and happiness should be abolished[5]. The document adds that it is not only the right but also the duty of citizens to topple a government that is characterized by usurpations and abuses. Similarly, Walker urged black people to fight for their rights. Walker prompted blacks to take freedom into their hands and not just wait for God to deliver them, although he eventually would[6]. He added that killing was justified in securing freedom. He mentioned that a person would willingly kill another if he stood to lose his mother, wife, children, and property. Walter equated killing an oppressor to the sinless nature of taking water when thirsty.It is imperative that blacks enlighten fellow blacks on freedom and rescue them from self-loathing to attain happiness and equality[7]. God would also punish white people, from whom they cannot hide their inequities. Americans, whether they heard or not, would be severely punished by God because of spilling innocent blood and discriminating people even in church. In a poem to God, the Lord was aware of the cruel whites, and he should use his lengthened arm to defeat the enemies and stop their boasting[8]. Walter, Just like the Declaration of Independence, urges people to fight back.

Walter’s ideas on fighting oppressive regimes resonate with the ideas of the Declaration of Independence. Both emphasize that people must reclaim their rights and overthrow those who oppress them.Interestingly, Walter downplays the severity of murder by comparing it to drinking water[9]. Oversimplifying the act encourages blacks to be violent because he makes the killing appear like a natural act when seeking freedom. Further, Walker encourages his people to educate each other to eradicate ignorance. The ignorance of human rights is what cost the blacks their freedom, and they should strive to end it. God is instrumental in justifying the fights. The Declaration argues that people should fight for their rights which God gave them. By comparison, Walter perceives God as the ultimate avenger. That the Lord would punish whites on behalf of blacks. Using God alludes to the holy nature of the fight. Fighting is a spiritual undertaking, and the partakers would be absolved of any adverse outcomes like death. Walter’s ideas are not as radical as people thought because he advocates for revolts like the Declaration encourages, and both use God in justifying their deeds.

Equality of Men

All men are equal, stated the Declaration of Independence and Walter. The Declaration explicitly mentioned one of its truths that all men were equal[10]. Henceforth, they should enjoy unalienable rights like the pursuit of happiness, liberty, and life. Comparatively, Walter encouraged blacks that they are equal to whites. While encouraging them to fight, he pointed out the similar physical attributes. He said that they were also men with two eyes, hands, feet, and some sense in their heads as the whites did[11]. Forthwith, they had every right to take whites captive as had been done to them as they had equal rights before God. The whites should be punished to the same extent that they had subjected blacks as it was only fair to do unto the whites what they had done unto them. On equality, Walter suspected whether blacks were a distinct race due to circumstances or were inferior because of oppression by white people[12]. However, he found that people of the same genus and species were supposed should have been the same. However, Mr. Jefferson tried to imply that it was unlikely that they were ever alike because they had a different color. Walter found this argument insufficient and shocking because people were the same regardless of their skin color. Walter and the Declaration of Independence argue that everyone is equal as created by God.

Walter echoes the ideas of equality stressed by the Declaration of Independence. He reiterates that blacks had the same body parts as whites. Again, they were all created by God, and on this basis, they are automatically the same[13]. Walter mentions that equality should be applied in every aspect of human existence like punishing offenses. He argues that blacks should punish whites only to the extent they too had been reproached. Walter’s mention of Mr. Jefferson’s insufficient evidence on the difference between blacks and whites shows stresses his point that people are the same, regardless of their color. Walter’s view of equality is not different from what the Declaration of Independenceholds accurate.

Evidence-Based Arguments

Walter and TheDeclaration of Independence go to great length to detail the evil deeds of their masters to justify their need for separation. The Declaration highlights evidence portraying the King of England as a dictator. According to the document, The King refused to consent to laws that would benefit the public, wore out people into compliance with his rules by calling them for meetings in distant locations, and obstructed justice by refusing to assent to laws that would empower the judiciary[14]. The King oppressed Americans by subjecting them to jurisdictions that their constitution did not acknowledge and levied taxes on them without their permission. Americans also accused the King of transporting them to overseas nations to participate in pretend trials and causing internal insurrections. Despite petitions, little was changed, and the Americans saw it just to rid themselves of the tyrant. Similarly, Walter’s work is awash with evidence of oppression. He claimed that blacks were punished cold-bloodedly and thrown into the sea while being transported to western nations[15]. Further, whites used lashes to torment blacks and make them believe that they were inferior to whites. Whites also derived pleasure from telling black children to beat up their mothers to a pulp, have husbands beat their heavily-pregnant wives until they miscarried, and making children strip their mothers naked and smear dung on their bodies[16]. Whites also took away property belonging to blacks and separated their families and planned to deport them to Africa.Walter and the Declaration of Independencepoint out evil deeds to give credence their need to be free.

Walter just like TheDeclaration of Independencedisplay instances of cruelty to convince the public that they should be freed. The declaration has over 20 accusations against the Crown and at the end, states that it cannot continue to be led by such a King. In the same way, Walter uses numerous testimonies to display the cruelty of whites. He even compares them to Biblical oppressors like the Egyptians[17]. Walter’s accounts are very explicit and center on how racism destroys black families as in the case of members being used to torture each other. He also shows how dehumanized blacks felt with emotional, psychological, and physical torture. Although Walter’s details are more voluminous and explicit, they serve the same purpose as the Declaration’s grievances, which was to evoke action from citizens and demand freedom.


Walter’s Appeal is a logical expansion of the ideas of The Declaration of Independence like equality of man and fighting oppressors and also used evidence to convince the public as did the Declaration. Walter wanted blacks to be recognized as equals to whites, a sentiment that the Declaration of Independence stressed. Moreover, he, just like the Americans, believed that fighting was instrumental in bringing social change and freedom. Both groups also used evidence of oppression to justify their demand for equality and freedom. Walter’s work reflects what Americans demanded from the British when they fought the war of Independence and drafted the Declaration.


Walker, David. Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World, 1785-1830. Retrieved from

Yale Law School. Declaration of Independence. Goldman Law Library, 2008.


[1]Yale Law School. “Declaration of Independence.” Goldman Law Library, 2008.

[2]David Walker. “Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World.” (1785-1830). Retrieved from, 17

[3]Walker, Appeal, 12

[4]Walker, Appeal, 3

[5]Yale Law School. “Declaration of Independence.” Goldman Law Library, 2008.

[6]David Walker. “Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World.” (1785-1830). Retrieved from, 14

[7] Walker, Appeal, 33

[8]Walker, Appeal, 88

[9]Yale Law School. “Declaration of Independence.” Goldman Law Library, 2008.

[10]Yale Law School. “Declaration of Independence.” Goldman Law Library, 2008.

[11]David Walker. “Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World.” (1785-1830). Retrieved from, 16

[12]Walker, Appeal, 31

[13]Walker, Appeal, 16

[14]Yale Law School. “Declaration of Independence.” Goldman Law Library, 2008.

[15], David Walker. “Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World.” (1785-1830). Retrieved from, 21

[16]Walker, Appeal, 25

[17]Yale Law School. “Declaration of Independence.” Goldman Law Library, 2008.