Paper 1: Self Concept
The five qualities of a fully functioning person as provided in Rogers’ concept of the fully functioning person are indeed an almost perfect reflection of the characteristic of a typical human being. However, organismic trusting seem to defy logic in the sense that it mentions that a human can do whatever he desires provided it feels right and comes naturally. In my opinion, the terms ‘right’ and ‘natural’ are relative. What feels right and natural to one person may feel otherwise to another person, and therefore allowing people to do whatever they feel right and natural may result in a world full of conflicts.
Rogers’ views concerning fully functioning human being are to a large extent similar to those of other humanists such as Maslow and Kelly. Just like Rogers, Maslow suggests that the primary goal of an organism is self-actualization. While Maslow states the seven stages that an individual passes through in his pursuit of self-actualization, Rogers explains the five steps of a fully functioning person, or, in this context, a self-actualized person. Also, another personality scholar known as Murray can be compared with Rogers in the sense that he dealt with human needs that are vital factors in the process of self-actualization. His contribution is that he came up with two groups of human needs; viscerogenic needs and psychogenic needs. While the former refers to primary needs such as food and shelter, the latter describes secondary requirements such as luxury cars.
Paper 2: Human Metrics
Humanmetrics Jung Typology Test™ is a type of personality trait test software available online and which helps people to find out their dominant personality traits. The tool uses a methodology, questionnaire, scoring and software that are proprietary to Humanmetrics. It comprises of sixty-four simple and straightforward questions that are associated with day-to-day activities. The choices to select from are: YES, yes, uncertain, no, and NO. YES stands for strongly agree, yes; slightly agree, uncertain; not sure, no; slightly disagree, and NO; strongly disagree. Examples of the questions in the test are: Do you enjoy having a wide circle of acquaintances? Do you spend your leisure time actively socializing with a group of people, attending parties, shopping? Among others.
After executing the test, for the most part I agree with the results but for the extraversion over introversion, I think the percentage for me is higher. I am an outgoing person and very comfortable around people. I am the kind of a person who feels confident in a crowd and can socialize with people of various personalities. During my free time, I prefer hanging out with friends and participating in recreational activities. For this reason, therefore, I believe the percentage for extraversion over introversion should be more than 6%; probably 15 or 20%.
About sensing and intuition, I agree with the results that show that I have marginal or no preference of sensing over intuition (1%). Contrary to sensors people who focus on the present and are concrete and literal thinkers, as an intuitive person, I live in the future and value inspiration and imagination. I am, therefore, content with the score given of 1%.
Concerning feeling and thinking, I agree with the score given of 25% of moderate preference of feeling over thinking. My decisions are more informed by social considerations, empathy and listening to my heart than fundamental logic. My extroverted nature, therefore, seems to play a pivotal role in my decision making.
I agree with the test result of 1% on my marginal preference for judging over perceiving. I only make choices when they are necessary, I am curious, tolerant, and always wishing to learn more. Among the traits, I dislike in judgers are rigidity and being self-opinionated.
In conclusion, I agree with all the test results about me except the one regarding extraversion and introversion. I feel more extraverted and therefore the score should have been higher.
Paper 3: Dementia
According to National Institute of Aging, operating under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning—thinking, remembering, and reasoning—and behavioral abilities to such an extent that it interferes with a person’s daily life and activities. Among the functions affected by dementia are the memory, visual perception, and ability to focus and pay attention among others. People living with this mental disorder are known for not being able to control their emotions, which eventually alters their personality.
Although most types of dementia are incurable, there are a variety of medications for managing this condition. Among the most recommended medicines for dementia is the use of Cholinesterase inhibitors. Dementia is related to a substantial reduction in acetylcholine, which is a chemical messenger in the brain, and Cholinesterase inhibitors increase the production of acetylcholine. Hence, these medications, when administered to a victim, boost the levels of a chemical messenger; acetylcholine concerned with memory and judgement.
Another treatment approach that can be used to manage dementia is exercising. According to Mayo Clinic, exercise provides people living with dementia with strength, cardiovascular health, and most importantly it protects the brain from further dementia attack. Mayo Clinic, from its website, states that some research shows physical activity can slow the progression of impaired thinking in people with Alzheimer’s disease (progressive dementia) and it can decrease symptoms of depression.
Another proposed therapy of dementia is taking vitamin E. Just like exercise, and vitamin E reduces the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. However, contrary to physical exercise which has no limit to people living with dementia, large dosages of vitamin E may result to death especially to people with heart problems.
Paper 4: Mental Disorders
There are more than 200 grouped forms of mental disorders. However, there are just five major categories of mental disorders namely anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia/psychotic disorders, dementia, and eating disorders. By definition, mental disorders describe a wide range of conditions that affect mood, thinking and behavior. This paper aims at reporting on the diagnosis and treatment of some of the major mental disorder.
Anxiety disorders are different from normal feelings of uneasiness or anxiousness and include excessive fear or anxiety. Specific anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, phobias, panic disorder, obsessive/compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Diagnosis of anxiety disorders mainly relies on the symptoms exhibited by the victim. These symptoms include panic, sleep problems, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, dizziness, nausea, dry mouth, and others. After ascertaining the presence of these symptoms in a person, a doctor goes ahead and asks for a medical history. He then runs tests to find out what specific medical illness could be responsible for the symptoms. It should be noted that no laboratory test can diagnose anxiety disorders. If the doctor finds no medical condition associated with the symptoms, he sends the victim to a psychologist or psychiatrist, where a special tool is used to identify the specific type of anxiety disorder.
Antidepressants such as escitalopram (Lexapro) and fluoxetine (Prozac) can be used. Psychotherapy, which is a form of counselling, is also useful. The popular current treatment for this type of disorder is called Cognitive behavioral therapy, and it involves coaching on how to recognize and change thought patterns and behaviors that trigger anxiety.
Mood disorders are identified by a serious change in the mood of a person, disrupting life tasks. Specific mood disorders include clinical depression, bipolar disorder, and dysthymic disorder. About 7% of the U.S population is affected by mood disorders, and the disorders are ranked among the top ten causes of disability in America.
Mood disorders are diagnosed through both physical examinations and mental health evaluations. Physicians perform a physical exam to exclude any underlying medical conditions that could be causing an effect on a patient’s mood. If ruled out, a mental expert may execute a sequence of assessments to determine the victim’s mood stability and mental health. In the event one is diagnosed with a mood disorder, he is advised on the best treatment.
The most common forms of treatments for people with mood disorders are the use of antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs. These medications alleviate emotional distress and induce a calm feeling. Psychotherapy is pivotal in that it focuses on changing thought patterns and behaviors hence thwarting the process that may result in mood disorders. Some disorders can become so extreme that hospitalization would be considered. People attempting suicide, for instance, should be hospitalized for close examination of their behaviors. Among the modern forms of treatment for mood disorders is the Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), which uses electrical stimulation of the brain to help victims experiencing major depression or suicidal thoughts.