In the year 1926, there arose a clash of the case of Brancusi and the United States whereby the corrupt relationship between the artwork and the textural description resulted to one of the most critical commotions of art and the law in history. Constantin Brancusi was born in Romania, but from the year 1904, he went and lived in Paris France and worked as a sculptor. In his art, he was interested in the theme of the bird, which resulted in the Bird in space sculpture (Flam, & Einstein, 2003).In his art, he made 15 styles in bronze and marble and a certain number of plaster casts. He sought to produce the universal nature of a bird well without the need for nature representational forms.
Arguments of the case
During this year, Brancusi made a sculpture of a bird in space assisted by the group of the Seattle Art Museum. He then sent it to Paris and New York at the gallery of Brummer which was created by his close ally Marcel Duchamp who was an advocate. Although in the United States the law allowed artwork like the sculpture to enter the nation free without restrictions and free from the import taxes which were waved, when the bird came, the government officials refused to allow his work to enter the country as art. For art to qualify as sculpture in the United States, the artwork had to be reproductions by casting or carving imitations of the personal style, and those from natural objects (Junge, 2010). The fact that the bird in space did not look like a bird in all perspectives, he officials grouped it as kitchen utensils and hospital supplies and taxed it 40percent of the value of the work. Since Brancusi was not delighted by the assessment, he launched a complaint in court to defend the art of bird in space.
Evidence of the case
When Brancusi took the case to court, the initial question was if his work entirely resembled that which it ought to look alike as stated in its title. After it would this test, it would make it sculpture and art, and this would result in an exemption from customs duties. The most complicated issue in the case was how to define sculpture and more specific art. Many experts delivered their testimonies in court regarding the matter, for instance, the owner of the stature, the Director of MOMA’S Department of photography Edward Steichen among other art experts in the United States (Hughes & Ranfft, 1997). While giving his testimony, the art critic Frank Crowninshield was questioned by the court what the object had to justify that it was a bird. He replied that the bird was a suggestion of flight, and the bird suggested grace vigor, aspiration, together with speed in the power of strength, beauty, and potency just the same way birds do. The court was persuaded that its explanation of what made art was out of date. Judge J.Waite ruled that there has been developing a new school of architecture whose exponents try to show abstract ideas rather than resemble natural objects. He said that whether or not they are in sympathy with the latest designs and their school of thought, the existence and the influence of their art should be appreciated and considered and the court had attributed to that. According to me the evidence given in the court was sufficient to make a worth judgment for the case of Brancusi.
My position regarding the case
I agree with the expression given by Frank Crowninshield who explained to the court what had persuaded him to conclude that the artwork of Brancusi was a bird. In his explanation, he gave all the characteristics of her bird; for instance, it showed a suggestion of flight among other qualities of a bird. Due to his powerful testimony in the court, he was able to convince the court, and the judge ruled in favor of the artwork of Brancusi. In his ruling, he stated that the new coming art men and sculptors should be given a chance to exploit their talents because the court had not seen any misdeed in their actions (Makosz, 2006). I am convinced that the judge did a sound judgment and in all these, he does not seem to oppose the work of the artist under all circumstances.
Key arguments around the events
The sculpture at Wall Street in New York United States was a fearless statue of a girl perceived by many people to show female empowerment. The statue had been placed facing the charging bull of New York’s financial district. There were rumors that the figure would be removed and put in front of the stock exchange instead. The charging bull was also to be removed but it was a mystery if it would be again paired with feminist opponent (Wallach, 1998).T he statue which is of a ponytailed bronze girl standing with her hands on her hips was installed in the year 2017 opposite the huge standing bull at the bottom end of Broadway in Manhattan. This place became a selfie hit and a new representation of the gender-equality movement.
A financial services company called State Street Global Advisors put Kristen Visbal’sstature as a part of the movement to encourage companies to put ladies on their board. This attracted some primary controversy and due to this factor fearless girl planned tenure for a few weeks was protruded for a whole year. The authorities decided that it would be reinstalled again near the New York stock exchange by the end of 2018. Another plaque was put in the same spot, and it features two small footprints which stated ‘’Until she’s there, stands for her.FearlessGirl.
Due to these statues, more people were reading and supporting the independence of the nation and the empowerment of women. The women claimed that unlike many organizations they had chosen an approach that permits them to keep the journalism accessible to all the people, irrespective of where they live or what they can afford. People in the nation also claimed that they have set their agenda and the journalism career is free from the commercial bias and that it was not the time the job was influenced by politicians, shareholders billionaires or owners (Flam, & Einstein, 2003). They stated it clearly that no one edited their editor and no one steered their opinion. It was also perceived as a tool that gives people who are not heard voice challenge the most powerful and influential citizens and to hold them to account.
Meaning of the grey areas
The grey areas are symbols of places with two extremes and regions with mixed characteristics. For instance in terms of the situation, space, and lacking clearly defined symbols. According to me, I think the grey areas which are placed between the fearless girl and the charging bull are a sign of how the women are growing to be powerful unlike the past when they had no sign of power (Junge, 2010). The bull is powerful, and women are perceived to be powerless, and the grey areas are used to show the gap though with time the essence of the stature was to make the women more powerful and citizens who can lead their nation.
Historical analysis based on reviewed resources
New York is the most attractive urban center in the United States. It is the most commercially driven city with different religions, and it is the city which has the highest population as compared to the other cities. There is no other city in America which has contributed much to the more images to the desire of the Americans more than New York.city.The meaning of Wall Street finance. The seven avenues indicate fashion, Broadway is known with theatre, Fifth Avenue is connected with shopping and other streets are associated with different figures in New York City. Every street in the New York City signifies something (Hughes & Ranfft, 1997).. The city has different religions and it evident through research the city contains more Jews than Telaviv.
The city has all kinds of people, for instance, Italians, Dublin, among other people. New York is the most magnificent city in the United States and probably in the world hosted the sculpture at Wall Street to show the essence of stature. The stature which was a carving of a lady was a sign of women empowerment, and it had to be installed in the great city in America, and that was the New York City(Flam, & Einstein, 2003). This was an indication that all the people of the United States had agreed that it was essential to empower women in all perspectives for instance through allowing them to take part in elections, and holding senior government posts which were only taken by men. Wome also had the power to participate in the building of the economy, and they acquired education to advanced levels just like men that enabled them to do exactly what men were able to do. Through women empowerment in the United States through the stature put in New York all women in that nation can enjoy the same rights which are enjoyed by men, and the act of discrimination has been eliminated once and for all.
Historical analysis based on Library catalog
In New York city there are very prominent buildings which were built in the past but act as essential sites for development even today. For instance, the Stephen A.Schwarzman built mostly referred to as The New York public library is the main building in the New York public library and is located in Midtown Manhattan in the city of New York (Junge, 2010). The library contains nine different divisions. The library has four stories which are free for use by the public. Many of the books which are located in these libraries have the mention different issues of the United States for instance about the gender equality in the country, women empowerment and the philosophy of allowing women to practice all their democratic rights just like men. The issue of political empowerment has not been left out in the content of many of the books found in this library and the other library located in the United States. The libraries have books which explain the history of the United States and the way the past has changed with time to favor some of the groups of people who seemed to be discriminated in the history of the nation. There are excellent libraries in the New York city, and all these libraries have content which is helpful for the entire population of the United States (Wallach, 1998). The content of the books and journals found in the libraries of the United States explains the essence of the different statues which are erected in the United States. Many of the statues installed in the New York city have a deeper meaning, and they are not perceived to be just ordinary statues, but they represent something in them. The administration of New York City used the sculpture images to pass critical information to the citizens of the United States concerning people, culture, religion, and other aspects of life. People of New York City are delighted to have statues which tell them more about the history of their country and the aspirations of their City and nation as a whole.
Historical analysis based on History databases.
Among the very many statues found in New York, there are only five statues that are for women. For instance, there are only 22 statues of men in Central Park alone but there is none which belongs to a woman. In Washington, D.C., women seem to be appreciated because there are five statues which depict the. Some sculptures have secret names in New York that recognize women in their contributions they have done for New York and the United States at whole. For instance, there is the statue of Emma Stebbins, the sculptor who came up with the Bethesda Fountain in Central Park in the 1860’S. The different women Sculptors which are installed in New York are aimed at appreciating women for their efforts in different sectors of the country (Junge, 2010). There are statues of women who are aimed at recognizing them because of fighting for the rights of women, others because of for pushing the gender rule to be used in the United States and others for women who have contributed to critical historical activities in the United States. There has been a detailed debate where some people have been claiming that it is necessary to build statues for events in the United States and not for specific individuals in the United States. This logic will allow the country to celebrate important events and actions in the nation and not appreciating a particular individual. This move seems to be accepted by many people in the United States as compared to the idea of installing a statue to depict one person. All said and done there are specific people for instance women whose actions cannot be underestimated and they must be appreciated through a statue in the main city like New York in the United States.
Many statues have been installed in the United States and the famous cities like New York and Washington D.C.For instance, a sculptor by the name of Judith Modrak has made seven interactive installations that attribute the urge to record one‘s individual experience (Wallach, 1998). In this statue, visitors are informed about recalling a great memory and then share with others by putting a color-coded stone into at least one of the sculptures. The colors represent six emotions which include, love, anger, fear, sadness, surprise, and joy. The following diagram represents the explained installation in Manhattan in the U.S.
In the United States, a famed glass sculptor named Dale Chihuly came up with his first leading New York City exhibition which was aimed to better the New York Botanical Gardens (Makosz, 2006). The meaning of the sculpture is a giant stick of pink rock color that represents the powerful influence of New York City. The following is the figure of the statue.
Different sculptors have come with stunning sculptures in various cities of the United States. Each sculpture has a meaning, and the sculptors aim at passing some information to the people about the city, and the nation of the United States. The United Sta is the most powerful country in the world in many aspects it is noted that when it comes to the matters of sculptures the country is far much ahead as compared to the other nations of the world (Junge, 2010). The sculptures are installed in the main cities of the United States so that they can attract and educate many visitors who visit the United States now and then. The government of the United States also has given powers to the sculptors to create sculptures in the country and more specifically sculptures which aid the country in marketing itself to the other places in the world. Through this, the sculptors have devoted themselves to do good work in the United States, and it is very clearly evident some of the sculptures found in the United States can never be found in any other state in the world.
My view regarding the thesis
From the past, the United States has been at the forefront in the world of art. Several statues have been erected in different parts of the country since a long time ago, and the figures have a meaning. The situation has not changed in recent times, but it is evident that the nation seems to be advancing in the world of art. The sculptures which are made in the recent times in the United States are more advanced as compared to the ones which were made in the past a fact that justifies that the country is improving in the world of art under all circumstances (Junge, 2010). Though there have been different debates regarding statues and sculptures, the country is seen to be appreciating the sculptors, and they have been recognized and their work is taken to be of importance. Various art challenges have not caused the country to dispute art but the government of the United States is seen to empower it, and it has also empowered people of all gender to exploit their talents. Through this, women have also been empowered and they can participate in artwork just the same way as men, and through research, some of the best artworks in the United States have been done by women (Makosz, 2006). After analysis, my thesis has not changed because I have learned that the United States has not turned down art.
Flam, & Einstein, C. (2003). Primitivism and twentieth-century art: A documentary history. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press.
Hughes, A., & Ranfft, E. (1997). Sculpture and its reproductions. London: Reaktion Books.
Junge, M. B. (2010). The modern history of art therapy in the United States. Springfield, Ill: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.
Makosz, R. (2006). Latino arts and their influence on the United States: Songs, dreams, and dances. Philadelphia, Pa: Mason Crest Publishers.
Wallach, A., & University of Massachusetts Press. (1998). Exhibiting Contradiction: Essays on the art museum in the United States. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.