A Case on Tuberculosis

Relevant health behaviors that contribute to increasing and/ or decreasing risk factors for contracting tuberculosis include the following. First, an individual suffering from malnutrition has a higher chance of contracting tuberculosis (Narasimhan, Wood, MacIntyre & Mathai, 2013). Malnutrition refers to the condition that occurs when the diet of a person does not have the required amount of nutrients. Malnutrition increases the risk of contracting tuberculosis since an individual will have an impaired immune response (Narasimhan, Wood, MacIntyre & Mathai, 2013). A person suffering from TB has decreased appetite and experience changes in metabolic processes, and this can lead to malnourishment. Moreover, a person with low body weight due to malnutrition is associated with the risk of contracting tuberculosis. On the other hand, good nutrition decreases the risk of contracting tuberculosis. Getting the right nutrition helps to speed treatment of TB since healthy nutrients result in a strong immune system.

Second, tobacco smoking contributes to increasing risk factor for contracting tuberculosis. Individuals who smoke have a relative risk of TB diseases compare to nonsmokers (Narasimhan, Wood, MacIntyre & Mathai, 2013). Besides, people with active tuberculosis have an additional risk of death. In addition, regular smoking harms individuals who have been successfully treated for tuberculosis. The situation doubles the risk that such individuals will develop TB again. Tobacco smoking causes impaired clearance of mucosal secretion and decreases an individual’s immune response (Narasimhan, Wood, MacIntyre & Mathai, 2013). Similarly, with tobacco smoking, an individual will experience decreased phagocytic ability of alveolar macrophages thus increasing vulnerability to pulmonary tuberculosis.

Third, alcohol consumption is a strong risk factor for contracting tuberculosis. Individuals who consume more than 40g of alcohol per day have the risk of contracting active tuberculosis (Narasimhan, Wood, MacIntyre & Mathai, 2013). Besides, alcohol use disorder or consume more alcohol experience increased the risk of TB due to alteration in the immune system. Precisely, the alteration occurs in the signaling molecules that produce cytokine.

Regarding this case, we have identified the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The system acts as the country’s premier system of the telephone survey. Precisely, this surveillance system is the largest in the world since it entails interviewing more than 450,000 adults across the United States and participating territories each year (Pierannunzi, Xu, Wallace, Garvin, Greenlund, Bartoli et al., 2016). Its purpose is to collect information on health risk behaviors, severe health conditions and preventive services among residents of the US. Therefore, it is the main source of health information in the United States. It uses surveys to provide state-level population health estimates. The surveillance system has been in operation since 1984 (Pierannunzi, Xu, Wallace, Garvin, Greenlund, Bartoli et al., 2016). Information that states may request from Center for Disease Control and Prevention includes samples of telephone numbers with local strata. The sources that fund the data collection process include state and federal agencies and private firms. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention offers support for a part of data collection. However, regarding the optional modules and state-added questions, states provide their own funding.

Data from the BRFSS are used for policy development and advocacy. Similarly, the information is used at the local, states and national levels to plan, conduct and evaluate public health programs. Researchers administer BRFSS questionnaire on a continuous basis by telephone. The method used is random-digit sampling. Respondents used in this survey are adults with ages ranging from 18 to 99 years (Pierannunzi, Xu, Wallace, Garvin, Greenlund, Bartoli et al., 2016). The interview involves one adult per household. States have the option to add optional modules to their core surveys. In the case of questions, states can add them to achieve their specific needs. Therefore, after the collection of data, they are used to set health goals and monitor the progress of public health at local, states and national levels.

Risk communication is an essential tool that is used to disseminate information and understand about a risk management decision. Stakeholders can use the information and understanding of risk communication to make informed conclusions on how their interests and values would be impacted by decisions made. Regarding this case, risk communication was essential for Sara’s co-workers. First, the Human Resource Department did well in managing negative feedback and outrage. The risk communication experts in the agency were able to determine the risk perception and evaluation. The relationship between the agency and Sara’s co-workers affects the perceived seriousness of tuberculosis. Therefore, when Sara’s co-workers are outraged, they tend to think that the tuberculosis is serious. Given that TB falls into increased workers concern, attempts by the Human Resource Department to be trustworthy and deliver the right message are likely to be well received. The Human Resource Department demonstrated openness by including employees in discussions about Sara’s health condition.

Second, the Human Resource Department of the agency established expertise in communication. A successful risk communication requires the management to convey information in a way that can be understood by employees. Showing expertise in disseminating information allows employees to understand the seriousness of the disease and can make right decisions. Sara’s co-workers were able to understand her situation, and that is why they were able to avoid physical contact and spending time with her. In addition, the Human Resource Department provided adequate information about Sara’s situation to her co-workers. The existence of adequate information limits the problems for risk communication.

The key components in developing crisis and emergency risk communication messages include the following. The first component is the expression of empathy (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005). Empathy entails the ability to understand someone’s emotions. It is significant for one to express empathy in the first few seconds of starting to communicate. In a crisis, expressing empathy is not optional; however, officials must consider it as a necessity. Officials must repeatedly express empathy to individuals affected by the event. The second component is to call for action (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005). During a crisis, leaders of the organization will make certain decisions by communicating to employees. Leaders will make decisions on what to release, why to release the information, whom to release the information to and when to release. In addition, the leader will decide on where to release the information and how to release it. Regarding the scenario, employees will get information on tuberculosis.

The third component entails what we do not know. The public or employees should accurately understand the risk. For those who need to know, they should get background information about the risk. The fourth component entails the process used to get answers. A detailed process should be involved in getting answers regarding the crisis. It is essential to listen to the feedback from the audience and stakeholders and correct miscommunication that might have occurred (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005). Similarly, it is significant to improve employees’ response in future through training and education. Fifth, with the statement of commitment, one should provide a statement that shows that the organization is aware of the emergency and it participated in the response. Moreover, one should send a statement to stakeholders using emails. The sixth component is referrals. It entails directing someone for a consultation or further action. People should know how to get more information. The agency should give a website or a hotline number that would help individuals to get more information. Similarly, you should inform them when you will be back.



Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). Crisis and emergency risk communication (CERC) Basics. [Card]. Retrieved from https://emergency.cdc.gov/cerc/resources/pdf/basic_cerc_zcard.pdf

Narasimhan, P., Wood, J., MacIntyre, C. R., & Mathai, D. (2013). Risk factors for tuberculosis. Pulmonary medicine, 2013. 828939. DOI. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/828939

Pierannunzi, C., Xu, F., Wallace, R. C., Garvin, W., Greenlund, K. J., Bartoli, W., et al. (2016). A methodological approach to small area estimation for the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Prev Chronic Dis, 13, 150480. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd13.150480


Do you need an Original High Quality Academic Custom Essay?