Biological evolution is a concept in physical anthropology that deals with the understanding of the alternations and changes in the inherent traits in living organisms over a specified period that could even use generations and millions of years. Changes in the evolutionary sequences usually result from the introduction of variations in the traits of the populations in their genetic makeup and thus could lead to mutation or an organism can now adapt to the new changes for their chances of survival in the environment. A study on the biological evolution is vital for it brings a new concept of attempting to understand the origin of life through the study of genetics, historical knowledge on the existence of earlier forms of life through forensic investigations, organic evolution, and finally a keen understanding on the contemporary evolutional theories (Dobzhansky, 1956).
The research paper shall tackle specific pieces of evidence that could help us understand the process of biological evolution. It shall also analyze the factors that might have had a contribution to the natural selection and mutations of some organisms as it analyses the factors that largely contributed to the extinction of some of the early living organisms with an endeavor to have a definite finding on the impact of the missing organisms to modern evolution.
NAME: Bader Alfozan
Mutation is the changes that occur in the structure of a gene and could easily result in transmission of the variance to the following generation of the same species. The changes in the structure of the DNA can be as a result of changes in a single base of the DNA structure. It could also occur from either the rearrangement of the DNA base units or even deletion of a forming base strand of the structure of the DNA. Besides, mutation can also occur from the reorganization of a large section of the chromosomes and genes.
In evolutionary biology, there are instances of mutation that resulted in changes in the offspring of some primates due to the changes in the genotypes, chromosomes, and DNA. In a primate, for instance, the Aotus, the platyrrhine primate is under the taxonomical classification of a nocturnal primate. The primate has a genetic defect of the opsin gene which is responsible for the production of the short wavelength sensitive in the cone photopigment component in their eye. As a result, the Aotus can now mutate and retain a single pigment in the same cone photopigment part of its eye. In an observation on the trait of the nocturnal ability of other animals, the same traits exhibited in the Aotus eye has the same cause of nocturnal features in the eyes of these mammals. Due to such alternations, the loss of color vision in other relative such as azarai displays a pattern of nocturnal vision that is high as a result of the alteration in the structure of the Aotus primate (David H. Levenson, 2007).
NAME: Bader Alfozan
In the homo sapiens species, the species has mutated in areas where their skin color, as well as blood components, have made them survive in the regions that are prone to variations in sun’s radiation and temperatures and sickle cell anemia respectively. The primates, due to mutations, they can pass the traits of their skin pigmentations that would help them survive in different climatic conditions. Furthermore, due to living in areas prone to malaria and sickle cell, the primates in the affected regions have formed resistance mechanisms in their bloodstream through the introduction of the sickle cell allele that would make them survive in environments prone to malaria (P. C. Sabeti, 2006).
Natural selection as a mechanism of evolution and survival entails the aspect that some of the organisms can evolve and undergo modifications that would make them be able to survive their environment within a speculated time. Charles Darwin proposal of natural selection emphasized that organisms are capable of inheriting traits from their parents as well as passing them down to the next generation. He also specified that organisms have a decent capacity to reproduce more organisms than the environment can easily accommodate due to scarcity, competition, and depletion of available resources for supporting life in each resultant generation. Lastly, the concept also emphasizes that the next breed of generation would become more adaptable to the environment due to the inheritance of many traits from their biological parents.
NAME: Bader Alfozan
In primates, some features demonstrate the survival tactics resulting from natural selection. As earlier discussed on the concept of sickle cell anemia, primates having favorable characteristics usually transmit them to their offspring and this, in turn, enhances their chances of survival as well as becoming even more ‘strong’ and immune to some environmental challenges (P. C. Sabeti, 2006).
During the industrial revolution in Europe, the peppered moth indicates the chances of survival by natural selection and also an environmental contribution to its survival. The peak of the industrial revolution resulted in environmental pollution due to overproduction of soot from poorly combusted coal. Due to the over-accumulation of soot in the environment, especially on walls and tree barks. The peppered moth became invisible from predators leaving the non-melanin moths exposed to prey and thus drastically reducing its population.
In human beings, our earliest ancestors adapted to the changes in the dietary through natural selection. The homo sapiens have a distinct dental pattern that is different from other primates. Their teeth demonstrate a reduced structure of teeth mostly viewed in the canines where the homo sapiens canines are small in size and also display wear on the tip. The same traits are evident in the modern human dental formula (Tiago V. Pereirat, 2006).
Some of the organisms become extinct as a result of having recessive genes that could inhibit the survival of any organism. The recessive genes can lead to the formation of base pairs in the structure of the DNA, and this can easily distort or lead to a negative chance of a species to adapt to the environmental factors (F Hoyle, 2000).
NAME: Bader Alfozan
Geographical Distribution of Organisms.
In looking at the distribution patterns of the organisms and living things, there is a clear pattern in resemblance to the characteristics and traits from different organisms located at the same latitude but in distant locations. There is a distribution of non-melanin skin color in primates living in the north and south of the poles while there are similarities in the melanin skin color in primates living in the mid parts of the northern and southern hemisphere. Some organisms are located in areas where they specifically adapt to the environmental conditions that offer the platform for breeding and reproduction of new species.
Fossil evidence in parts of the world can indicate similarities in the structures of the bones through forensic investigations. Parts of the African fossils have the exact characteristics as fossils found in some regions in Europe indicating a possible geographical migration to areas in search for food and more nutrients.
From the above research work, it is evident that biological evolution in primates and other non-human primates came as a result of mutation, and natural selection. The mutation resulted in the development of genes that can enable and facilitate the survival of living organisms in different environments due to the changes in their chromosomes and genetic combination. Natural selection, on the other hand, took part in ensuring survival tactics to organisms in their different environments.
David H. Levenson, e. (2007). Mutational changes in S-cone opsin genes common to both nocturnal and cathemeralAotus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology, 757-765.
Dobzhansky, T. (1956). Evolution, Genetics, and Man. Physical Anthropology, 944-945.
F Hoyle, N. W. (2000). Biological Evolution. Department of Applied Mathematics and Astronomy, 55-75.
Tiago V. Pereirat, e. (2006). Natural selection and molecular evolution in primate PAX9 gene, a major determinant of tooth development. Human Evolution, 5676-5681.