The paper explores some of the debates that have been put across both proponents and opponents of abortion. Although the paper is against abortion, it analyses all sides before offering a conclusive position. In the first part, there is the statement of the thesis statement, the definition of abortion as well as the existing standpoints on abortion. It defines abortion or feticide as being the deliberate termination of a pregnancy. The paper explains that abortion is often a tussle between the rights to uphold the rights of the mothers vs. the need to protect the right to life of the unborn child.
Under the supporters of abortion, there is the inclusion of arguments such as upholding the equality between women and men, offering women the opportunity to decide what to do with their bodies, minimizing the health risks that are associated with unsafe abortion among other arguments. Other than stating that there is the need to uphold the right and the decision of the mother, there is an equal argument that there is the entitlement to quality and safe health care services. The outlawing of abortion implies that there is a limitation in the access to quality and safe abortion services.
The opposing part focuses on feminist principles, long term effect of abortion, moral provisions and other ethical considerations. Feminist principles are seen to be against violence and acts of discrimination. There is also the risk that the concerned would have long term health impacts such as the inability to conceive. It is on these grounds that the paper argues that there is the central need to outlaw abortion. However, there is the call to have exemptions in cases where it is evident that the life of the mother is at risk.
Abortion is a subtle debate as it calls for an evaluation of the standpoints that are held by the conflicting sides. While some groups are in favor of abortion, it is worth noting that others oppose abortion and term it as being both unethical and violation of the right to life. The paper will offer an argument for and against abortion (Guenther, 2018). It is only after considering the arguments in each camp that one may have a conclusive and informative position on the abortion debate. Abortion is defined as being the deliberate termination of a pregnancy. Unlike miscarriage, abortion/feticide is the deliberate termination or destruction of a fetus. In the past years, there have been a growing number of abortions in the global.
Abortion may be either surgical or medical. Under the medical abortion, there is the use of medical pills that prompt the ending of a pregnancy. Unlike surgical methods, the use of pills is common among young persons. Other than the ethical dilemmas that are involved in the process, it is worth noting that there are many health risks associated with abortion. There are cases where many people have died while trying to abort. The illegal nature of abortion and the corresponding serotypes makes people timider to seeking medical services. While abortion is illegal in many countries, it is allowed when the life of the mother is at risk.
Abortion can be defined as varying highly among countries. Such laws are often based on political, religious, ethical and moral grounds. Nonetheless, abortion is common even in regions where the law does not uphold it. The World Health Organization explains that the rates of abortion are almost similar in countries that legalize and those that illegalize abortion. Since the onset of the 20th century, many Western countries have been on the leading front in the codification of laws on abortion (Duffy et al. 2018). The initial liberalization of abortion laws was intended to offer remedies in cases where the life of the mother is in danger. However, this provision has mutated over the years as there are the provision of abortion services in many countries upon request.
In the case of the United Kingdom, it only legalized abortion that does not exceed 24 weeks. Other countries include the USA and Canada. In the case of the USA, different states have varying laws and requirements on abortion. In countries such as Germany, there is the opposition of abortion as it is viewed as being a violation of human rights. The debate on abortion can be linked to the varying views on when life begins. While some groups are of the idea that life begins after birth, others argue that life begins after conception. The group that holds that life begins after birth does not see a violation in the right to life in abortion.
However, religious bodies and other groups that hold that life begin after conception term abortion as being a violation of human rights. The prevalence in the level of abortion is cited as being a failure by the government to protect the life and rights of the unborn child. It is further seen to go against the set moral standards and requirements. While one camp is keen on protecting the life of the mother, the other camp is of the view that utmost efforts need to be put in protecting the lives of both the mother and the fetus. Opponents of abortion are of the view that it goes against moral values and religious teachings.
Argument of Abortion
The supporters of abortion mainly use the right of the mother as being the ground of their standpoints. They argue that the life of the mother ought to be prioritized over the life of the fetus. They further infer that the mother has the right to decide whether to carry or terminate a pregnancy. Supporters of abortion argue that women have the moral right to decide what to do with their bodies. Compelling them to continue with a pregnancy against their wish is thus seen as being a violation of their rights (McGee et al. 2018).
There is also the view that abortion is a fundamental aspect of gender inequality. The argument is based on the fact that many problems come with pregnancy. An example is the fact that pregnant mothers find it limiting to engage in employment and other productive activities. During the pregnancy period, they may also face discrimination and other difficulties. There is thus the view that women ought to be given the right to control what to do with their bodies. Just like it is the case of donors where one cannot be compelled to help a recipient, the fetus is viewed as being a recipient and wholly depends on the donor. The argument has been applied in many settings as being the basis of terminating pregnancies.
The other argument put forward by the supporters is that the banning of abortion prompts women to look for illegal abortion services. In regions where abortion is outlawed, there is the tendency to depend on unprofessional services thus putting the lives of the concerned persons at great risk. It is worth noting that WHO reports that there is an increasing number of deaths that are linked to unprofessional abortions. Other than deaths, there is a risk that women may face health complications and other health risks. It implies that legalizing abortion would create a platform where the government can fund and supervise the processes (Mucciaroni et al. 2018). Contrary to using unprofessional methods, there will be the use of professional services thus reducing the number of deaths. Moreover, access to quality health care services is defined as being a fundamental human want.
There is also the indication that there are cases where the pregnancy exposes the mother to great health risks. There are cases where health complications by the mother make it challenging to carry a pregnancy. In such a setting, the doctors may be required to save the life of either the mother or the fetus. Supporters of abortion argue that the priority ought to be given to the mother. However, the outlawing of abortion implies that the lives of mothers are exposed to great risks. Even in cases where it is evident that the life of a mother is in danger, health care practitioners may be reluctant to carry out abortion due to the fear of being reprimanded. There are also cases where women are raped and view abortion is being important in the healing processes.
Arguments against Abortion
Contrary to the view that abortion allows for equality and upholding of the rights of the female gender, there is the view that it may have adverse implications on the emotional and physical well-being of the concerned persons (Mucciaroni et al. 2018). In the case of physical health, there is the danger that complications in the abortion process may damage the uterus or cause other complications. The case is common in settings where untrained persons do the abortion process. It is worth noting that there are instances where persons have lost lives or had extensive injuries. Such a trend may make the concerned mother unable to conceive in future years.
On the other hand, there is the view that abortion triggers many emotional problems. Many stereotypes are linked to abortion. Other than feeling guilty of terminating a pregnancy, there are high chances that one would face opposition from the public. In extreme cases, one may be unable to deal with pressure and thus suffer from depression. It implies that the productivity and the wellbeing of the methods are affected in the long run period. Contrary to abort, there is a stress on the need to come up with support services that would ensure that mother resister an improved quality of life. Moreover, there are minimal counseling services that are offered to mothers after the abortion process thus making it hard to deal with the results.
The third argument is that the right to life is provided in the constitution. There is the indication that life begins after conception (Mucciaroni et al. 2018). The mother and the government are thus obligated by the constitution to take care of the fetus. Abortion is thus viewed as being a violation of the provisions of the Bill of Rights. While there are differing opinions on when life starts, there is an emphasis on the need to protect the unborn child. Currently, there has been the creation of many health care plans seen to target unborn children and their mothers. The improved quality of health care services and other forms of empowerment implies that mothers are in a position to take care of their children (Durmus et al. 2018). There is also the option of taking the child to a foster home as opposed to conducting an abortion.
Opponents of the trend further argue that it goes against religious teaching and moral values. Moral values and ethics are seen as playing an essential role in regulating the relations among society members. They serve to ensure that the rights of all persons are upheld. Abortion is thus seen as being a rot in the society and creatures the risks of increasing the prevalence of other vices. Moreover, many communities are based on strategic, religious values with acts like abortion seen as going against the teachings. It is seen as going against the set social values. There is thus the call for the need to abolish abortion and ensure that the rights to life of unborn children are upheld. Legalizing abortion is regarded as having the effect of exposing unborn children to great danger.
The other ground of opposing abortion is that it is against feminist principles. It is worth noting that feminist principles are often on the leading front in the opposition of any acts of dissemination or violence. These principles are centered on the need for promoting equality and wellbeing of all society members. It means that supporting abortion would act as a setback of the gains that have been made by feminist movements. On the contrary, there is a stress on the need to exhibit love and comparison to the unborn child. There are thus calls to ensure that pregnant mothers are availed with the right supports services that ensure they register an improved quality of life. Focusing on the two sides indicates that there are critical considerations that need to be made in addressing the abortion debate.
The paper supports the outlawing of abortion as it is seen as a violation of the right to life. While there is the argument that women have the right to control bodies, there is a similar need to ensure that there is the protection of the unborn child. The Bill of Rights provides for the right to life and opposes any actions that may be seen as exposing the life of an unborn child to great danger. It is also against the feminist principles which stress on the need to eradicate discrimination and violence on any member of the community. Additionally, they oppose the prevalence of unethical activities and actions that go contrary to set moral values.
While they recognize the need to empower women and give them a chance to express their rights, the principles infer that these rights ought not to be at the expense of unborn children. However, there are also cases where abortion may prove necessary. An example is a setting where the life of the mother is exposed to great risks. In such a situation, it would be equally necessary to protect the right of the mothers. It implies that abortion ought to be prohibited but with some exemptions. These exemptions should only include cases where it is proven that the pregnancy exposes the mother to fatal health risks. The health care providers ought to be charged with the role of determining whether there is any risk. Lastly, these exemptions are to be provided in the constitution thus minimizing cases where there is the manipulation of the laws.
Duffy, D., Pierson, C., Myerscough, C., Urquhart, D., & Earner-Byrne, L. (2018, September). Abortion, emotions, and health provision: Explaining health care professionals’ willingness to provide abortion care using affect theory. In Women’s Studies International Forum (Vol. 71, pp. 12-18). Elsevier.
Durmus, E., & Cardie, C. (2018). Understanding the Effect of Gender and Stance in Opinion Expression in Debates on” Abortion.” In Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Computational Modeling of People’s Opinions, Personality, and Emotions in Social Media (pp. 69-75).
Guenther, A. (2018). Review of United States Abortion Policy.
McGee, A., Jansen, M., & Sheldon, S. (2018). Abortion law reform: Why ethical intractability and maternal morbidity are grounds for decriminalization. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 58(5), 594-597.
Mucciaroni, G., Ferraiolo, K., & Rubado, M. E. (2018). Framing morality policy issues: state legislative debates on abortion restrictions. Policy Sciences, 1-19.