Agonist to Antagonist

Agonist to Antagonist

Agonist to antagonist in pharmacology refers to drugs which in some conditions behave like agonist that is a substance that wholly activates the receptor that it binds. Besides, it behaves as antagonists under some particular conditions; hence it acts as a substance which attaches to the receptor but it does not activate, and it also blocks the activities of other agonists. Receptor ligands are the forms of mixed-antagonist receptor glands which act as agonists for some types of receptors and antagonists or agonist in some parts of the tissues and antagonist in others.

Explain the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents

Agonists and antagonists are critical players in the body of human beings and pharmacology. Antagonists and agonist act in opposite directions. For instance, agonists produce actions while antagonists oppose the responses. First, in terms of muscles, agonists work hand in hand with muscles while antagonists work against the muscles. Antagonists function during the contraction of muscles while agonists work during the relaxation of muscles. Besides, agonists are known as prime movers since they have a responsibility of producing particular movements.

Agonists are substances which combine with cell receptors to produce reactions which are typical for those substances. Antagonists are chemicals which reduces or opposes actions in humans and pharmacology. In pharmacology, agonists bonds with receptor sites and stimulates reactions. On the other hand, antagonists work against drugs and block the responses during the use of drugs. Additionally, agonists stimulate actions when the antagonists are idle.

Agonists play a significant role in binding and modifying the functions of activated receptors. The agonists change the activities that are performed by the receptors which are the psychopharmacologic agents. Antagonists help in the process of binding receptors, but they do not modify their operations. Additionally, agonists can combine with some chemical substances to promote actions whereas antagonists interfere with the effects of psychopharmacologic agents upon their combination. Therefore, the actions of agonist-to-antagonist work against each other pharmacology and in human beings.

Compare and contrast the actions of g couple proteins and ion gated channels

G couple proteins are ion channels that are located in plasma, and they are activated directly by associated proteins. The G couple proteins play the role of maintaining the electrochemical gradient in the cells. On the other hand, ion gated channels are ion channels that open and close in response to a ligand which is a chemical messenger. There is a direct link between the opening and the closing channel and the ligand. The link is contrasted with the metabotropic receptor’s function with the help of the second messengers which transmit signals from receptors on the surface of the cells to the inside of the cell to the target molecules.

Both g couple proteins and ion gated channels perform a similar function. They play the role of regulating the channels and clustering signaling molecules. The signaling of g couple proteins regulates the actions of ion channels. The surface are of the ion gated channels enhance the interaction of indirect modulation and the g couple proteins by the signaling pathways. The conditioning of the g couple proteins and the ion channels influence the transition of channels between the active and closed states.


Explain the role of epigenetics in pharmacologic action

Epigenetics play a significant role in pharmacologic action. Epigenetics studies changes that occur in organisms due to the modification of gene expression without altering the genetic codes that is the DNA sequence. Epigenetics performs the regulation role during the pharmacologic action. The system regulates if the gene is produced or silenced in its protein or RNA. Human bodies comprise of cells with similar pairs of genes with different gene elements that are suppressed or expressed leading to the production of tissues which undertake various roles in pharmacologic. Epigenetic determines the type of gene to be expressed or silenced affecting the learning ability of the brain, psychiatric disorders, and improvement of the psychiatric disorders through psychotherapy or drugs. Epigenetic helps in expressing and silencing genes through the modification of chromatin structure through chemicals like acetylation, methylation and methods like neurotransmission and the use of drugs. Methylation disruption through neurotransmission and drugs influence the expression and silencing of genes. Epigenetics plays a vital role in pharmacologic action through chromatin modifications which contribute to reactions which stimulate changes to methylation, histone acetylation, and DNA methylation.

Explain how this information may impact the way you prescribe medications to clients.

The epigenetics information impacts on the prescription of medications to clients. The information influences the formulation of drugs to prevent epigenetic procedures which lower diseases in individuals. Besides, the epigenetic information determines the type of treatment that pharmacologic actions should receive. For instance, some conditions require global responses as opposed to drug-receptor technique since some drugs are not meant to act on a specific protein subtype, ligand, or gene. Such conditions work effectively when the drugs epigenetically function on diverse genes to cure different types of health conditions.

Cancer is an example of a medical condition which the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner must be aware of the action of the medication. The nurse has to be aware of the epigenetic variations depending on the cause of the disease. Additionally, the care giver should target many variations in determining the cause of the condition and hence prescribe the appropriate medication to the client.


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