An Analysis of Camfed


In the wake of a changing world where governments cannot afford to tackle all the social problems, not for profit organizations have stepped in to fill the gap left behind. Among these organizations is the Campaign for female education (Camfed) which is an international organization seeking to bring social change through its involvement. Located in the United Kingdom Camfed is a renowned charitable organization that engages in girl support to tackle poverty in African countries. The organization further encourages the education of the girl child while empowering young women to become change makers through leadership.

Through its initiatives, the organization has continued to impact positively at the local, regional and international levels. In the UK, the organization provides employment opportunities to people who work at both the head offices and the remote locations. Moreover, the company provides for volunteering opportunities therefore helping locals make an impact on other people’s lives. The organizations involvement in Ghana, Zambia, Tanzania, Malawi and Zimbabwe has positive implications on the society. In these countries the organization supports the education of thousands of girls thereby opening up more opportunities to the girls.

Moreover, investment in girls and women has the spiral effect of lifting up the entire society as these people are likely to help other members of the society as well. Although the efforts of the organization might seem small when individually assessed, it is these efforts that continue to change the world. At a global level, the organisation helps in the reduction of poverty in the world which is the main barrier to quality education. In its years of operation, the organisation has helped a remarkable 198, 310 girls to attain education (Linklaters & CAMFED, 20101). The impact that these girls will have on the overall society cannot be underestimated.


Mission and Vision

Any reputable organization knows only too well the importance of mission and vision statements. In fact, studies have shown that more than 90% of the firms in the UK have mission and vision statements. Besides influencing the objectives that an organization sets, these statements provide an opportunity to gauge the performance of the organizations. Most people confuse and use the two terms interchangeably to mean the same thing. However, there are distinct differences and purposes of the two statements. A mission statement serves as a guide to the purpose of an organization and therefore guides the general decision making process. The main goal of an organization is well crafted in the mission statement (Lane, 2011) and is vividly clear from the onset. On the other hand, a vision statement offers a direction of the company and incorporates the corporate values of the organization. As thus, the vision statement tracks the direction of an organization within a specific time frame while emphasizing on the important organisation values. Its purpose is to inspire the workers of the organization by giving them a sense of purpose as they conduct their assignments.

Camfed’s mission is to “fight poverty and HIV/AIDS in Africa by educating girls and empowering women to become leaders of change. Our goal: To improve the lives of two million children by 2013”. The organization’s mission statement is ideal in that it communicates its key stakeholders as well as the reasons for its existence. Moreover, the main stakeholders who are the beneficiaries are covered in the mission statement therefore accentuating the purpose of the organization even farther. However, the mission of the company does not contain the organization’s values. This is a disappointment because the mission statement should communicate the guiding principles therefore covering its purpose for the other stakeholders including the government of the nations they are involved in. Toyota for instance, has a guiding principle stating its commitment to respect the customs and culture of every nation that it sets base in (Dermol, 2012). Moreover, the goal of the organization seems to be outdated and the timeline given should be scrapped to make logical sense.

Camfed’s vision is of a world in which every child is educated, protected, respected and valued, and grows up to turn the tide of poverty. The vision is of perfect length and is shorter than the mission statement as is often the norm in most organizations. Moreover, the vision is effective in that it declares the organization’s purpose and aspirations in a manner that is future oriented. The organization’s vision statement is also an extension of the mission statement and conforms to the purpose and goal set out in the latter. Clearly, the intention of the organization is the achievement of a world where girls have better opportunities to become successful. The vision of the organization can be used to ascertain the level of achievement of the organisation in terms of what it sets to achieve in future. Through the use of statistics, the number of girls that have been educated through the organization’s programs can be ascertained with accuracy and used to measure its achievement. Every action and decision taken by the organization must conform to the vision and mission statements and should help in the attainment of the two.



The term governance is quite dominant in the management of not for profit organizations all over the world. It is the system and processes concerned with the attainment of the overall supervision, direction accountability as well as effectiveness of an organization. Good governance is vital in the separation of power between the management and the board of directors and helps in articulating the organization’s issues (Caldwell & Karri, 2015) with regard to compliance to regulations within its scope of operation. At Camfed, the importance of governance is acknowledged and forms a key part of the organization. In fact, its unique model of governance is in part the main reason for the company’s key achievements. The company’s view of governance conforms to the principles for the responsibility that an organization has to its different stakeholders.

It is the responsibility of any board to set the mission and purpose of the organization they run (Tschirhart & Bielefeld, 2012). The organization has specific principles of governance that it implements and are centered on the improvement of the beneficiary girl child. As thus, it is difficult for the organization to fall in the wrong side of the law in each of the many countries that it operates in. The main principle of governance at Camfed is thus the protection of the vulnerable beneficiaries who are largely children. As thus every decision and action at Camfed is examined for its possible effects on the children. To support the main principle, the organization has four other principles including transparency to the people involved. Partnerships with the local structures as well as activism are other principles. Finally, the organization adopts a holistic approach to the delivery of protection and resources thus achieving long term outcomes.

It is not just the existence of these principles that make governance at Camfed effective. Rather, it is the manner in which the implementation takes place at the ground that makes the governance model successful. Camfed has two structures of governance: local and corporate structures. At the local sphere, the programs are managed by members of the school committees, mother and father support groups and Camfed alumnae association. All the three units are important in identification, mentoring and counseling of vulnerable girls into the program. In fact, to the locals, Camfed is a group of local workers making a difference in the people’s lives. The national and international organizations play little direct impact on the identified girls and their role is mostly limited to financing, expertise, monitoring and evaluation.

The organization also has a corporate structure that guides its collaborative approach to both governance and management of the organization. Each of the organizations in the different countries is a different legal entity but all share the same constitution. In each of these countries, Camfed has an executive director who runs the national organization. The international executive director is based in the UK and provides support and coordination to the different national offices. The entire organization is run by an executive committee consisting of the national executive directors together with development and finance directors from the UK and US organizations. Twice every year, the members of the executive committee meet in person and once every week through teleconference. The committee is the decision making organ and dictates the countries in which funds should be invested among other strategic decisions.

Each country has a board of directors that ensures the smooth running of the organizations. Each of these boards is responsible for the review of accounts, expenses and finances and ensuring that international best practices are observed in relation to the finances and accounts of the organization. Further, the boards are also responsible for reviewing the overall strategic plans of the mother organization. This, they do through asking critical questions regarding the achievement of the organization and the direction that it takes. Importantly, the principles of governance including protection of the beneficiaries are emphasized and actions that seem to contradict the same questioned.

As efficient as the governance at Camfed may seem, it is not in any way perfect. In fact, improvements are needed in the areas of governance to help in the commitment of the board members. One way of achieving this is to increase the number of annual meetings from the current two to four meetings. Some aspects and challenges require face to face meetings and the limitations of the same could spell doom to the attainment of the organization’s goals. In addition, the board members can enhance their commitment and involvement through increasing the meetings with the beneficiaries. As currently constituted, the international organization’s involvement is mainly limited to the areas of support and finances. While these areas are of critical importance, it would be more effective if the members from the international organization could be more involved. As members of the decision making organ, it is important that they have all the necessary facts to improve the quality of their decisions. In addition, it cushions the organization from instance of ill informed decisions that have far reaching impacts on the stakeholders. Regular meeting with the beneficiaries would ensure the total implementation of the main principle of governance at Camfed.



Ethics is a body of rules based on ideas about what is morally good and bad. Any organization of reputable stature is well aware of the importance of ethics in its operations. As thus, most organizations have prioritized the installation of ethical values among their employees through training or policy (Gino & Margolis, 2011). In particular, not for profit organization have a bigger obligation of being ethical owing to the fact that they are social enterprises. In addition, not for profit organizations are funded by donors and the highest ethical standards must be maintained for sustainability to be achieved. Not for profit organizations are faced with the possible increase in unethical practices owing to the uncertainties in the economy. For instance, managers may be involved in corrupt dealings to sway funds from the organization’s kitty and into their pockets. Camfed is no exception to these risks and is equally confronted with the possibility of such instances.

Despite having the requisite structure to dissuade stakeholders from acting in unethical manners, the organization is not free from the constraints of unethical behavior. In fact, over time, it has faced the challenges of unethical issues that continually plague other organizations in the mot for profit arena. Perhaps the importance of maintaining ethical standards in the not for profit sector culminates from the fact that their reputation is dependent on how they handle such cases (Noddings, 2013). Moreover, the lack of action against perpetrators of unethical behaviors may erode the organizations image in the eyes of the public. Such results may lead to the lack of funding as donors withdraw their support from the organization’s projects.

One of the ethical considerations that present a danger to the existence of the organization is the issue of salaries and perks. In particular, the remuneration for the top management of the organization is much more scrutinized in the not for profit organizations compared to organizations in the for profit business. The public is always concerned when nonprofit organization officials are offered exploitative and exorbitant salaries. In particular, the high salary perks may raise ethical issues in poor countries of Africa where Camfed operates. In addition, high perks such as transport allowances conferred upon leaders of such organizations may raise queries when the organization has not yet met the social needs of the community. Camfed has addressed the issue of salaries and perks by harmonizing the pay structure to reflect the current market prices. In addition, allowances are only granted upon their expenditure as a form of reimbursement rather than being provided upfront. This model helps in preventing misuse of funds thereby protecting the image of the organization.

Another ethical issue that faces not for profit organizations such as Camfed is the question of accountability and conflict of interest among the employees. Mostly, people faced with these ethical issues are in high management offices. Perhaps the reason for the prevalence of unaccountability has to do with the fact that the organizations enjoy a number of tax incentives and have very little oversight over their usage of funds. It has been observed that a huge number of not for profit organizations lack the requisite strategic plans to guide the proper utilization of funds. In addition, officers in the organization may be faced with the challenge of conflicting interests between the organization and themselves. The issue is most prevalent in instances when board members use their positions for personal gain. Moreover, the awarding of huge contracts to the main donors may also create a conflict of interest. One way of averting these instances is through the formulation of a policy to guide the issues of accountability and conflict of interest. Managers with personal interest in an issue should not be allowed to make decisions regarding that particular issue. Moreover, the organization can put up measure4s to ensure oversight over the utilization of funds.

Fraud and tax evasion forms another ethical issue that may possibly affect the operations of Camfed. Although none of its employees has been implicated in any of the above in recent years, it cannot be ruled out. The fact that the organization deals with huge sums of money exposes it to the risk of fraud and tax evasion. In addition, the countries of operation are faced with corruption challenges and the managers in those organizations may be tempted to engage in these illegal activities. The absence of oversight over the utilization of funds creates a loophole for embezzlement of funds by the managers. The organization should put internal mechanisms in place to encourage whistle blowing. This would ensure that planned fraudulent activities are reported even before they occur therefore leading to the apprehension of the perpetrators. To prevent the issue of tax evasion, the organization should audit the records on a regular basis and in impromptu instances. This can dissuade fraudulent activities as the officers know that they will eventually be caught.


Management and Leadership

An effective management style is very important in articulating the goals of an organization (Franzetti, 2011). The leadership of the organization is run through two management structures. There are local management teams that head the different national organizations and also a corporate structure to oversee all the national organizations. The organization has an executive director based in the UK, who together with the national executive directors and the directors of development and finance forms the executive committee. The executive committee is the overall decision making organ and steers the direction of the international organization.

The national directors are supported by boards of directors in their countries of leadership who help in the leadership of the organizations. The boards of directors review the accounts, finances and expenses of the national organizations and help in the achievement of the national goals. Each of this leaders and managers is tasked with the overall goal of helping achieve Camfed’s objectives. As thus, they are bound by the constitution and the principles of governance stipulated by Camfed.


Volunteers and Staff

In each of the countries that Camfed is located, there are multiple employees sourced from within the country to help in the achievement of its goals. These employees are in the payroll of the organization and their salaries are harmonized with those of other international organizations. Some of the employees help in the administrative work such as accounting and office operations. Others are extension officers whose work at the ground is crucial for training and mentoring the beneficiaries of the projects. In addition to these, there are volunteers and interns sourced from all over the world and placed in the different countries. Interns provide support to the different arms of the organization including fundraising and monitoring and evaluation of projects. The interns are paid a minimum wage and last for a minimum of three months. A salary has been observed to be a major motivation for interns especially when they work in harsh conditions (Morrell, 2011). However, the period can be extended after the third month up to a maximum of six months.


Organizational budget

The organization depends on funding from donors to fund its activities in the different countries of operations. The main source of funding for Camfed is Trusts and Foundations which represent a whopping 37% of the total income for 2015. Donations from corporate entities represented about 34% of the organizations total income for the same year. The total income for the year was a total of 10.8 million Euros with 99% of this funds being absorbed into charitable activities. Among the 9.5 million Euros used in the charitable activities, 5.3 million Euros was used to provide educational support to vulnerable girls and boys. Investments in women to start businesses reached 2 million Euros which was an increase from the preceding year’s 1.7 million Euros.

In the wake of economic slowdown all over the world, the organization should brace itself for hard times in the future. Corporate organizations may reduce the volume of funding leaving the organization with very little to fund its activities (Crosson, 2014). In view of the above, the leadership should come up with ways of raising income other than through donations. One example would be to sell products to the locals at subsidized prices and then reinvesting the same in the community (Tschirhart & Bielefeld, 2012). This is an important aspect of social enterprise. In addition, the organization can offer credit facilities to start up businesses therefore revolving the money between different entrepreneurs.


Strategic planning

The direction of the organization is shaped through the use of both mid and long term strategic plans (Simerson, 2011). The plans are an important instrument in the measurement of the organizations achievement. The international executive committee is responsible for the development of the organization’s strategic plans. The plans are made during the two annual meetings that the executive committee convenes. In addition, the meetings are used to review the strategic plans and to improve the plans as need may dictate. The organization’s strategic plans are five years long and sets out the agenda of the organization in the next five years.

Strategic planning has been shown to be of importance to making resource allocation decisions as well as gaining consensus among stakeholders for future action (McHatton, 2011). After the creation of the plans, it is then broken down into specific objectives each with its timeline and the persons responsible for its implementation. The national directors are responsible for the overall implementation of the plans in their countries of jurisdiction. Further, these directors can then assign specific assignments to the employees of the national organizations therefore helping in the plan’s actualization.


Social change

The goal of the organization is to reduce the levels of poverty in its countries of operation while educating the girl child. One way that the organization uses in reducing poverty levels is through the empowerment of women. In so doing, the organization effects social change at both the individual and community levels. For instance, by empowering women in business, the organization not only eradicates the woman’s poverty but also that of her family. In addition, the education of girls is an important aspect in the social development of a community (Baur, 2011). The organization has in its years of operation increased the number of girls enrolled in schools therefore helping them to access better opportunities in future. The impact that these actions have on the society cannot be quantified.



Camfed is an ideal organization in which success has been achieved through its operations. The organization has one of the best models and has been lauded as having set an example to other organizations to follow. The manner in which its principles of governance are implemented is excellent starting with the primary principle of protecting the beneficiary. In addition, the structure has pooled together one of the best workforce therefore ensuring timely achievement of goals and objectives. The organization has independent national organizations running the operations of the specific countries in which it operates.


Annotated Bibliography

Lane, M. J. (2011). Social enterprise: Empowering mission-driven entrepreneurs. Chicago, IL: American Bar Association.

The article details the empowerment of entrepreneurs through their missions. Additionally, the paper analyses the intricate workings of a social enterprise and the importance of having a mission. The paper is effective in communicating the advantages of having a mission in a social enterprise. The use of real life examples in the paper is effective in portraying the drive that missions impact on the organization. The paper is effectively used in the report to show the important function of having a mission in social enterprises.


Dermol, V. (2012). Relationship between mission statement and company performance. Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University-Economics, 59(1), 321-336.

The article is a summary of the interrelationship between mission statements and organizational performance. It asserts that the mission statement directly affects the performance of an organization. The better the mission statement, the higher the performance of an organization as the former dictates the purpose of the organization. The paper critically addresses the important link between mission and organizational performance. Ultimately, the article is effective in the report as it points out the importance of having a strong mission statement at Camfed International. In this report, it shows the effect that the mission statement has on its overall performance.

Caldwell, C., & Karri, R. (2015). Organizational governance and ethical systems: A covenantal approach to building trust. Journal of business ethics, 58(1-3), 249-259.

The paper is a detailed account of the link between organizational governance and ethical systems in different organizations. Essentially, the article points out to the importance of good governance in curbing unethical behaviors. Ultimately, effective structures of governance can dissuade the incidence of unethical instances such as fraud. The article is effective painting a picture of the different scenarios in which good governance dissuades bad behavior among employees. The report employs the article in pointing out the importance of the governance model at Camfed and how it dissuades unethical practices. The report uses the resource to critically analyze the impact of good governance at Camfed.

Noddings, N. (2013). Caring: A relational approach to ethics and moral education. Univ of California Press.

Noddings analyzes the ethical concepts as applied in the organizational settings. The book defines the different ethical concepts as applied in both organizational and real life experiences. It details an account of the concept of caring and how education can be effectively used to instill morals in employees. The effectiveness of the book in shedding light on the importance of morals is particularly important. In this report, the book comes in handy in analyzing the risks that Camfed faces in terms of ethical issues.

Franzetti, C. (2011). Operational risk modelling and management. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

The book is an overview of the different leadership and management styles and how effective they are in managing risks in an organization. Franzetti is critical of the importance of having the right management and the dangers of lacking a proper style of management. The book lacks in a detailed account of the different management styles in the current market. Nevertheless, it provides useful insights in the understanding of the different roles of management. In this report, the book is effective in understanding the impact of good leadership on the success of the organization.

Morrell, F. (2011). 90 steps to employee engagement & staff motivation. S.l.: Lulu Com.

In this book, the focal point is the motivation of employees both permanent and contractual. The book analyzes the different sources of motivation and draws inference regarding their influences on the general performance of the company. It provides solutions to increase the motivation and engagement of staff and volunteers. The book is effective in analyzing the sources of motivation amongst different employees. The use of recent examples in making claims is effective in shaping the issues on the ground. In the report, the resource is used to conceptualize the possible sources of motivation for both staff and volunteers at Camfed.

Crosson, S. V. (2014). Managerial accounting. South-Western Cengage Learning.

The book is a narration of the importance of funding and proper management of accounts to the success of any organization. It draws a link between the keeping of good records and the success of different organizations. In essence, managerial accounting is a key concept in the performance of organizations at large. The book is quite important in that it shows the importance of having a good budget. I n the report, the book is utilized to understand the budget making process and how organizations implement their budgets.

Simerson, B. K. (2011). Strategic planning: A practical guide to strategy formulation and execution. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.

Simerson provides a guide to the strategic planning process in general while providing specific steps along the way. Essentially, the book uses practical examples to show the process from the formulation to the implementation stages. In addition, the importance of having milestones and timelines is equally highlighted in the text. The use of practical examples provides a realistic guide to understanding the process. Moreover, it avails important aspects that laymen can understand easily. In this report, the book was important in understanding the process at Camfed and how the strategies are implemented.

Baur, D. (2011). NGOs as legitimate partners of corporations: A political conceptualization. Dordrecht: Springer.

The book sheds light on the important role that not for profit organizations plays in the society. In particular, it emphasizes the important role of filling the gaps left behind by business corporations. The role of not for profit organizations in effecting social change on any society is also studied in detail. The book provides real examples of instances in which not for profit organizations have stepped in to fill the gaps in different societies. This book was particularly useful in mapping out the changes in society that Camfed articulates through its missions.



Baur, D. (2011). NGOs as legitimate partners of corporations: A political conceptualization. Dordrecht: Springer.

Caldwell, C., & Karri, R. (2015). Organizational governance and ethical systems: A covenantal approach to building trust. Journal of business ethics, 58(1-3), 249-259.

Crosson, S. V. (2014). Managerial accounting. South-Western Cengage Learning.

Dermol, V. (2012). Relationship between mission statement and company performance. Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University-Economics, 59(1), 321-336.

Franzetti, C. (2011). Operational risk modelling and management. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Lane, M. J. (2011). Social enterprise: Empowering mission-driven entrepreneurs. Chicago, IL: American Bar Association.

Linklaters (Firm), & CAMFED International. (2010). Camfed governance: Accounting for the girl : working towards a standard for governance in the international development sector : a report. London: Linklaters.

Morrell, F. (2011). 90 steps to employee engagement & staff motivation. S.l.: Lulu Com.

Noddings, N. (2013). Caring: A relational approach to ethics and moral education. Univ of California Press.

Simerson, B. K. (2011). Strategic planning: A practical guide to strategy formulation and execution. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.

Tschirhart, M., & Bielefeld, W. (2012). Managing nonprofit organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Gino, F., & Margolis, J. D. (2011). Bringing ethics into focus: How regulatory focus and risk preferences influence (un) ethical behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 115(2), 145-156.

McHatton, P. A., Bradshaw, W., Gallagher, P. A., & Reeves, R. (2011). Results from a strategic planning process: Benefits for a nonprofit organization. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 22(2), 233-249.