Statistical power is a common term in quantitative research since it encompasses measuring events involving objective observations assigned numerical values especially in cases that involve a causal relationship. Since qualitative research often concentrate in understanding rather than pinpointing the cause or the reason, this particular approach enables the discovery of a phenomenon to naturally occur so that to validate the information for use in other scenarios.
Triangulation refers to the technique of applying more than one method of collecting and analysis of data on the same phenomena. Since the researcher is the main “instrument” of measure in qualitative inquiries, the triangulation of data through applying various data collection techniques such as interviews, observations, archives, and focus groups among others may go a long way to strengthen the integrity of the research (Josen & Jehn, 2009). Moreover, a researcher can collect different perceptions by collaborating with other researchers, peers, scholars or other individuals with extensive expertise in the field with the intention of gaining alternative impressions. The processes associated with the triangulation of data by applying various data collection techniques and increasing alternate explanations from different sources allow the research to determine where ideas converge and diverge. It is important to acknowledge that the purpose of triangulation is not necessarily to cross-validate the study but rather capture different perceptions of the same phenomenon.
Therefore, we can argue that triangulation offers qualitative methodologist similar reduction as the increased statistical significance in efforts of reducing the likelihood of overlooking essential results in the study. The main point of triangulation is to gain a good understanding of different perspectives rather than cross-checking if data from two different sources correspond (Golasfshani, 2003). Therefore, like the effect of increasing the sample size to improve the statistical power and subsequently reduces chances of overlooking essential results, triangulation increases the level of knowledge of the researcher about the phenomenon and thus strengthens the researcher’s perception on various aspects and scenarios associated with the phenomenon.
Qualitative research is grounded in subjective, interpretive and contextual data, which illustrates that the findings and the conclusions of such studies are likely to be scrutinized and questioned. As such, it is vital for the researcher to take the necessary steps to ensure the validity of the research. Validity describes the appropriateness of the techniques, process, tools, and data in the study. Indeed, the term validity questions whether the research question(s) is valid for the hypothesized outcome if the methodology applied is appropriate, if the design is valid and if the conclusions are valid for both sample and context. To ensure validity, it is necessary to assess and confirm the ontology and epistemology of the issue being investigated (Noble & Smith, 2015). For instance, the concept of “a person,” is perceived differently between the humanistic and positive psychologists because of the different philosophical views of the individual. Indeed, where the positive psychologists hold the idea that the individual exists together with the formation of any human being, humanistic psychologists perceive an individual as a product of social interaction. Therefore, due to the different opinions, any qualitative research validity depends on the regard of the person.
Moreover, to ensure validity, it is necessary for the choice of methodology to facilitate and support the investigation of the phenomenon in the most appropriate way. The sampling techniques, data collection methods, and the procedures must also correspond to the research paradigm and showcase distinctiveness between different researches from systematic, purposeful or theoretical research procedures. Systematic sampling describes a situation where there is no prior theory, purposeful analysis, on the other hand, is used when there is a distinctive while the approach is applied when the research is grounded on ongoing processes.
Additionally, the techniques applied in data extraction and analyses are essential in ensuring the validity of the research. For instance, research may apply tier triangulation of the researchers as well as of the resources and theories to increase efficacy through utilizing different opinions (Leung, 2015). Other processes that ensure validity include but are not limited to well-documentation of the audit trail of materials and methods, participant verification and application of multidimensional analysis.
The literature review reviews books, surveys, reports or any other sources that are relevant to a particular issue under investigation. Therefore, a literature review provides a description, summary and a critical analysis of the references in regards to the research problem under investigation. The three sources concentrated on the issues associated with the teaching and learning experience in addition to an analysis of the case study as a research methodology. Case study methodology is applied when the focus of the research is contemporary rather than historic when the research question focuses on how and why and if the study focuses on behavior (Yin, 2010).Huang, Strawderman, and Usher (2013)asserts that there is little literature on ways to train graduate students how to teachand suggests an excellent mentoring system between professors and graduate students is necessary. Utilizing a sample of more than 220 adolescents, one research examined intentional and unintentional incivility in the classroom and concluded although many adolescents who take part in classroom incivility share temperament traits, a disposition for specific subtypes may differ based on particular temperament characteristics (Spadafora, Farrell, Provenzano, & Marini, 2016).
The three sources applied in the literature review offers insight into how the research will be designed and how the results are analyzed. For instance, in the analysis of the issues associated with teaching and learning, it is evident that the case study methodology might be preferred since the techniques applied in teaching and learning is a contemporary issue not to mention that both actions are considered behavioral. The article prompts the researcher to acknowledge the aspect of individual differences in classroom behavior, particularly in both temperament and incivility. Moreover, the articles pinpoint that good mentoring system is vital in facilitating education training. Therefore, the materials applied in the literature review provide knowledge that guides the current research.
The central unit of analysis in this particular situation is the way that the medical providers interact with their patients since the research focuses on the investigation on how best doctor-patient associations can be managed and incorporated in the curricula. Undeniably, the study wants to document any instance that a patient and the doctor have a positive and satisfying interaction. Therefore, the research will focus on what the doctor does and how each patient reacts to the doctor’s specific actions. Entailing the help of the patients’ perception of their interactions provides a clear picture of what the majority of the patients prefer when they visit healthcare. This is done using both the questionnaire and interviews. In the questionnaire, the research will utilize a Likert scale to analyze the perceived behaviors of medical providers that are considered satisfactory. The video, on the other hand, provides both visual and audio evidence of patients’ reactions from their smiles to their laughs or any other response that can be perceived and categorized as a happy interaction.
Since it is an acknowledged fact that majority of the patients are unlikely to enjoy their time in the doctor’s office, the research assumes that the majority of the excellent experience either comes before or after the procedure. Therefore, it is necessary to get the readings on the level of satisfaction before and after the process. Taking the ten video recordings and assuming the readings are four at the Likert scale, the total amount is twenty points which seem inadequate to make conclusions. Therefore, it is necessary for the research to get more data on what makes physician-patient interactions pleasing. The interviews and the questionnaires provide additional information. The triangulation process involves correlating the data from different sources to conclude (Heale & Forbes, 2013). While it is unlikely that the results will be similar, it is likely that they will supplement and complement each other to provide a single conclusion.
Golasfshani, N. (2003). Understanding reliability and validity in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report.
Heale, R., & Forbes, D. (2013). Understanding triangulation in research. Evidence-based Nursing, 16(4).
Huang, Y., Strawderman, L., & Usher, J. (2013). A new model for mentoring graduate students: Teach them how to teach. Proceeding of the American Society for Engineering Education(ASEE) Conference.
Josen, K., & Jehn, K. A. (2009). Using triangulation to validate themes in qualitative studies. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, 4(2), 123-150.
Leung, L. (2015). Validity, and generalizability in qualitative research. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 4(3), 324-327.
Noble, H., & Smith, J. (2015). Issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research. Evidence-based Nursing, 18(2).
Spadafora, N., Farrell, A. H., Provenzano, D. A., & Marini, Z. (2016). Temperamental differences and classroom incivility: Exploring the role of individual differences. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 33(1).
Yin, R. (2010). Case study research: Design and methods. Los Angeles: Sage.
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