Just like the societies today, the ancient societies had their foundation on principles. These principles maintained peace and order. The ancient Hindus and Chinese had their foundation on the principle of groups. These societies operated on the caste system. These differences existed because the rulers realized that not all people can be equal nor can they have similar capabilities. Castes were formed based on occupations and roles in the society. Movement from one caste to another was highly prohibited since it was viewed as disrupting the order of the community.
Another foundational principle of both societies was the mandate of heaven. The philosophy was used to explain the success and failures of the states and empires. A ruler who failed was viewed to have lost the moral right to rule which only comes from heaven. Both the societies acknowledged the presence of a super nature power among them. Farming was a major livelihood in both societies though the Hindus later became traders.
The ancient Hindus regarded cattle as their form of wealth. They relied heavily on herding though they later settled and started farming. They did not use any writings though they composed songs and poems.
Ancient Chinese, on the other hand, used writing as evidenced by bronze inscriptions and other writings on oracle bones. They wrote poetry books, history, divination manuals among others. Slaves existed in this society to perform hard labor such as tilling the farms. The society believed in veneration of ancestors with the argument that ancestors has the power to protect their families but only if the surviving families showed respect and ministered to the spirits. These ancient societies are not so different with the existing societies. The caste system was replaced with the class system as observed in our societies today.
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