Article critique: “Progressing toward Data Intimacy: A Review of Within-Session Data Analysis”

Article critique: “Progressing toward Data Intimacy: A Review of Within-Session Data Analysis”


The article “Progressing toward Data Intimacy: A Review of Within-Session Data Analysis” by Fahmie and Hanleytalks about aggregation continuum which ranges from a distance to an extraordinary display of various information. In the article, multiple sample analysis from different researchers has been analyzed to understand the visual interpretation of the behavior research better.From various scientific journals, it is evident that different types of graphics displays are essential in disseminating, evaluating and organizing multiple scientific fields. Data aggregation before transformation serves a vital role in data analysis. The authors in the article have also shown the variance in the continuum of the collection. While this article produced significant results showing the within-session utility in the past and the areas in the future, there are limitations related to authors premise, methods, and conclusions.


In the article, there was a review of research articles sample in which the within-session information has helped in creating a visual analysis. The first issue of JABA come with an aggregated bar and line graphs. In the research, it became difficult to collect moment to moment data because of the following factors. The study used Behavior recorded instances and human behaviors instead of machines; this made the collection of data to become difficult in the applied settings. During the study, the periods of samples started when the observers started recording behaviors and stopped when they seized. To transduce the data in the study, the summary figures were all entered in the summary figures. The review continued depicting the behavioral data at the secession level by counting the number of empirical articles that were published between the year 1996 and 2006(Fahmie, 2008). Thisperiod was used because it outnumbered all the empirical shreds of evidence that have ever been created over time. In the study, the sample used was 35 articles. These articles included a depiction of information aggregated at 8% level of within session, 77% session level, and a 3% condition level. The results of the study revealed that the functional procedures of NCR are idiosyncratic, this means that both extinction and satiation or either of them was functioning during the various participants in the NCR. The analysis also revealed practical and conceptual implications in personal responses. For example, researchers, Thomson, Iwata, and Hanley examined the within patterns during the extinction and reinforcement components of multiple and mixed schedules. From the study, different types of graphics displays have proved efficiency when disseminating, evaluating and organizing the outcome of various experiments in the scientific fields. This is evident in the scientific journals that show the graph to text space.


There are various implications related to the study;the sample in the survey was nonrandom, it included 35 articles from the year 1996 to 2006. The materials chosen involved a within-session of 8%, condition level, 3% and 77% session level(Fahmie, 2008). This is a good sample, but the problem is how the sample was distributed. The variance in the sample was too significant than expected. The condition level in the sample was too low, a larger sample concerning the category would have aided better results in the data analysis. There was also insufficiency in the data to be analyzed. The brief analysis done in the study minimized the behavior of sample, this, as a result, threatened the accuracy of the conclusion to be made in the research.There was also a threat to the internal validity in that the articles might not have been entirely focused on scale completion but instead on the practice that is coordinated. Other factors could affect the validity, but they weren’t mentioned in the study. There were invalid and inefficient behavior assessments that occurred, and this is because of the briefevaluation yielded by within-session analysis of information in thestudy. Sometimes, the validity of the experiments needs to be forgone for efficacy, this is what the author says, but this is not the case on what should be done. There was also a depiction concerning data, and the researchers didn’t use multiple backgrounds in ensuring inclusion of data that leads to valid conclusionsin the research. There was also an implication in the conclusion part, and it didn’t show clearly how the behavior-environment analysis relates to the behavioranalyst ability to observe, record, display and analyze information. There was also insufficiency in the areas where the special data displays are likely to take place. This can pose a threat to future academicians who may like to explore the topic.


The article focused on a crucial topic “progressing towards data intimacy” where analysis of within-session data was done. Thirty-five research articles in which visual analysis of applied behavioral study has been enhanced by within session data were examined. However, the research didn’t precisely describe the orientation of the program for the future researched to replicate the information. Additionally, the generalizability of findings was limited by a lack of diversity and small sample size. Future research on the topic needs a more diverse sample to enhance clear description of the visual inspection of data.


Fahmie, T. A., & Hanley, G. P. (2008). Progressing toward data intimacy: A review of the within‐session data analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis41(3), 319-331.


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