Artificial Intelligence

History of Artificial Intelligence

            Artificial intelligence is a field of computer science which involves creating machines that can think and function like human beings. The term was first used by John McCarthy in 1956 during an academic conference that was aimed to discuss the issue. However, the actual idea to come up with intelligent machines was proposed by Vannevar Bush (Smith,  McGuire, Huang, & Yang, 2006). After five years, Alan Turing wrote a paper that explained how machines could be manipulated to function intelligently, such as play chess. Despite many arguments about the ability of machines to think, people still believe that they can be applied to solve arithmetic and logical problems.

In the past sixty years, development in artificial intelligence has been based on special themes that aimed to prove the level of intelligence of machines. Firstly, the Turing Test which was suggested by Alan Turing was meant to test the capabilities of computers to imitate a human being to the extent that even judges can fail to differentiate if it is a machine or a human being that worked out the task. However, no machine has passed the test yet. Secondly, advancements have been made in computers so that they be able to play chess like human beings. Due to the continuous developments in technology, some computers have managed to play chess to higher levels. Still, more technology is being applied to ensure that more intelligent machines that can play hard games are manufactured. Another major theme in the history of artificial intelligence is the aim of scientists to come up with machines with highly developed expert systems. Such systems can emulate the decision-making ability of human beings. Also, many efforts are being made to design such computers.

Following the explanations above on Turing Test and expert systems, machines have not yet attained the intelligence depicted by human beings. Therefore, scientists still have much to do to ensure that artificial intelligence attains higher ranks as compared to human intelligence.

Implementation of Artificial Intelligence in China

            China has been ranked at the top in the implementation of artificial intelligence. The country has put the development of artificial intelligence as a top priority such that all industries in the country are connected to each so that they can come up with machines with high artificial intelligence. Currently, 85% of companies are actively participating in the field of artificial intelligence such that they have already started adopting processes involved in implementing the AI strategy 9 (Hunag, 2019). In 2017, the country established the New Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan which has seen make extra moves over other developed countries. Unlike other countries whose AI development plans are based on the efforts of individual companies, China has a unified development plan which ensures that its companies adopt the AI strategy.

Implementation of Artificial Intelligence in Singapore

            A survey done by the Seagate Technology in Asia-Pacific revealed that Singapore has made a major step in implementing AI such that at least six companies in ten have implemented AI. Further information shows that AI implementation is high in information technology (60%), followed by customer support (49%), then supply chain and logistics (48%), and lastly in research and development (41%). Besides, more organizations are yearning to implement AI in that nine in ten organizations have planned to so in the course of 2019 (Liew et al., 2019). According to research among people and business companies in Singapore, the total implementation of AI in the country will have a great impact on people’s lives. This is because development in AI technology makes data analysis and planning efficient.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence


Implementation of AI has accompanying advantages to the country, companies, and its people. Firstly, AI leads to the development of more powerful and useful computers. As shown earlier, computers with high artificial intelligence can solve advanced algometric and logic problems. Secondly, artificial intelligence results in the designing of computers that can handle information effectively and reduce its overload (Strong, 2016). In this case, the storage of information in companies will be enhanced. Lastly, the implementation of artificial intelligence will help companies to solve new problems related to computers. For example computers with high artificial intelligence can solve even the hardest arithmetic that cannot be solved by other common computers.


            Artificial intelligence also has advantages and disadvantages as far its development and implementation is concerned. First of all, developing machines with high intelligence is costly as purchasing hardware and software that meet the high artificial intelligence is expensive (Strong, 2016). As such, developing counties and companies cannot afford to implement AL. Besides, there are few experienced programmers who can be able to develop computers to attain high artificial intelligence. Thus, it may take a long time for the few programmers to develop AI in a country. Finally, implementing AI in companies will lead to high rates of unemployment. As shown before, computers with high artificial intelligence can perform most of the activities carried out by human beings. Therefore, there are high chances of employees losing their jobs in organizations since computers are cheaper and efficient.



Huang, A. (2019). The Era of Artificial Intelligence and Big Data Provides Knowledge Services for the Publishing Industry in China. Publishing Research Quarterly, 1-8.

Liew, C. J., Krishnaswamy, P., Cheng, L. T., Tan, C. H., Poh, A. C., & Lim, T. C. (2019). Artificial Intelligence and Radiology in Singapore: Championing a New Age of Augmented Imaging for Unsurpassed Patient Care. Ann Acad Med Singapore, 48, 16-24.

Smith, C., McGuire, B., Huang, T., & Yang, G. (2006). The history of artificial intelligence. University of Washington, 27.

Strong, A. I. (2016). Applications of artificial intelligence & associated technologies. Science [ETEBMS-2016], 5(6).